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1st Artillery Regiment (Light)
Battery L
Civil War Newspaper Clippings

FROM REYNOLDS' BATTERY.—A gentleman who left the Rappahannock on Wednesday last reports that he saw on that day all the officers of Capt. Reynolds' battery. No casualties had occurred additional to those already reported.

Departure of Major Reynolds' battalion.— The 1st battalion of the 14th Heavy Artillery will leave for New York, by a Special train, at 9 o'clock this morning. Major W. H Reynolds, of Utica, is in command. The 1st battalion embraces the companies of Captains Trowbridge, Randall, Green and Jones, representing an aggregate of 560 men. Major Reynolds is ordered to report to Gen. Canby, at New York, and will probably be assigned to the harbor defences. The 2d battalion is to leave early in the ensuing week, under command of Lieut. Col. Corning.

Reynolds Battery.— A letter was received yesterday by the friends of Lieut. Geo. Breck, from that officer. It is dated in the field near Spottsylvania C. H., May 11th. The battery had been doing considerable skirmishing, but up to that time no serious casualties had occurred. A Sergeant, whose name is not given, was slightly wounded, and Lieut.. Breck, himself had been struck in the leg by a spent ball.

REYNOLDS' BATTERY, The Palmyra Courier states that O. H. Carpenter, who was killed, and W.S. Chase, who was wounded in Reynolds Battery during the late battle on the Rappahannock, were from Palmyra.

A SQUAD.-—Lieut. JONES, of Capt. Reynolds company, brought a fine squad of men to the city last night, from Otsego county. "Squads" are uncommonly unfrequent just now, and it is refreshing to note such arrivals. Capt. REYNOLDS himself is at West Winfield, and will probably be in "directly." with large reinforcements for Gen. SCROGGS.

BATTERY L.—Messrs. Anderson and Shelton, of Reynolds' Battery, are making good progress in recruiting. They will soon get the number of men they require. The Battery is popular in the army and at home, and it is one of the most healthy organizations in the service. There can be no more desirable place in the field for a soldier than in this Battery.

FROM REYNOLDS' BATTERY.-A letter from Reynolds' Battery says that in the recent engagement they had one killed and seven wounded. The battery did splendidly in covering the crossing of the troops at United States Ford. The prisoners taken, the writer says, are mostly Carolinians, are poorly clad and do not look as rugged as our troops. The battery also did good service in the recrossing of the river by the troops, who were delayed some time owing to the rising of the river and the reconstruction of the pontoon bridges.

DEPARTURE of CAPTAIN REYNOLDS. — Captain Gilbert H. Reynolds, of Reynolds Battery, left to rejoin his command on the Rappahannock, last evening. He has been at home a few weeks suffering from a wound received at the Battle of Gettysburg, by which he lost his left eye. He has recovered and goes back to the field short an eye, but with sight clear enough in the one remaining to enable him to see the Rebels and point those guns at them which have heretofore done such capital execution. During the absence of Capt. Reynolds the Battery has been under command of Lieut. Geo. Breck, and the Captain assured us on leaving that he should find it in the best possible condition when he returned, for Lieut. B. had not only the qualifications to command but to please all who come in contact with him. The success of Reynold's Battery—and it ranks No. 1 in the army—is doubtless in a great measure attributable to the fortunate selection of officers, who not only did their duty at all times, but maintained harmony and good feeling among themselves and secured the fullest confidence of the men.

Healing-- Capt. F. W. Reynolds' wound, we are happy to state, is now healing quite rapidly. The Captain has borne up under the severe pain consequent upon its frequent necessary attention, with great patience and courage. We believe he will in due time come out all right. Our country could illy spare such a man in times like the present.

CAPT. REYNOLDS' COMPANY.—Capt. REYNOLDS was at West Winfield, Saturday night, stirring up the patriots of that village and vicinity, to aid the war for the Union, and his company for the Buffalo Eagle Brigade in particular. An enthusiastic meeting was held, attended by a vast crowd. Addresses were made by Major SCHOLEFIELD, ENOS CLARKE, Esq., and G. A. HARDIN, Esq., the People's nominee for Senator in the Herkimer and Otsego District. The meeting was attended with a good result, as might have been expected. Capt. REYNOLDS' company, through the influence of the speakers, will be augmented by ten or a dozen first class men.

— Captain REYNOLDS' office is another attractive place for patriots who are anxious to enlist. The Eagle Brigade, to which his Company is to be attached, is receiving large accessions of men, daily, from the western part of the State. Captain R. proposes to raise a Company that shall compare favorably with any of them. He has advanced so far that he expects to be mustered early next week.

FROM REYNOLDS' BATTERY.—A private letter from Maj. Reynolds, who now holds a temporary command in the reserve artillery, to his friends in this city, states that he visited Battery L one day last week. Private J. P. Conn, who was wounded in the head at Gettysburg died on the 12th lnst. Deceased was a worthy young man, and was formerly a compositor in the DEMOCRAT office. His father resides in Van Wert, Ohio. The Major writes that private Aldridge was very ill of typhoid fever, and was to be sent to Washington.

REYNOLDS' BATTERY,—-Capt. G. A. Reynolds received a letter from the Battery on Monday. The date was Aug. 6th. At that time the Battery was at Rappahannock Station, the guns in position on the south side of the river, and the caissons on the north side.
Maj. John H. Reynolds is in command of the artillery in the 18th Corps—Gen. Slocum's command. This is a very desirable position, and we are gratified to learn that our townsman has been assigned to it.

Personal-Lieut. Anderson, of Reynolds' Battery, was in town to-day. He left the battery last week on sick leave, but will shortly return, as there is prospect of work for the Battery now which will require the presence of all who can go to the field. Lieut. A. resides at Palmyra and took in a large number of men at its organization. He has been with this Battery in all its arduous service in the field and feels, as he well may, a commendable pride in its success. He reports the officers and men generally well and the best feeling prevailing. Wherever that battery is ordered it will do its duty, as it always has, and reflects credit upon itself and upon that section of Western New York in which it was recruited.
Lieut. E.B. parsons, who performed the gallant exploit the other day in slaying the rebel who shot Col. Davis of the Eighth Cavalry, arrived last night on short leave, having come as far as West Point in charge of the body of the gallant Colonel.

The Promotions in Reynolds' Battery-An army correspondent of the Wayne Sentinel writes as follows respecting the recent promotions in Battery L, 1st N.Y. Artillery.
After being aligned and brought to a parade rest, Capt. Reynolds stepped forward, and in a neat and feeling manner announced to us that he had been promoted to the field, and was to rank as Major. His remarks were of such a nature that told upon the hearts of his men; not covetous, but gave justice to all. He attributed his promotion, and the good reputation of the Battery, to the bravery and good conduct of his men. He gave us earnest assurances that his influence and best wishes would continue with us, and that he would do all in his power it get assigned to our Brigade. Our feelings can better be imagined than we can describe them in losing our brave and respected Captain, who has led us into so many terrible conflicts and brought us out masterly and with so little loss. That our good wishes and a God speed go with him, we are confident he is aware. His departure from us brings forth other promotions which we are really pleased to announce.—, Lieut. Reynolds now assumes command of our Battery. In making this announcement, we gladden the heart of every member of our Battery. That he is a brave officer and a gentleman, we all know; and we can assure our friends that under his guidance they may look for new won laurels in our coming campaign. Lieut. Anderson also ascends a round in the ladder of fame, He now ranks as first Lieutenant. It seems unnecessary to say this promotion met the hearty approval of us all. That he is a brave, energetic officer and gentleman, we all know; and you would say he is a fighting man had you seen him acting a No. 1 on the gun at Bull Run last summer, when we were short of cannoniers.— He is respected by us all. There is another promotion, one which gladdens the hearts of every one—Orderly Sergeant Bowers, who lost an arm at the battle of Rappahannock Station last summer. He is to rank as 2d Lieutenant. Lieut. Bowers is at home at present, but on his return he will be received with a warmth such as is only known by genial companions in arms. With such a corps of officers, can our friends doubt of renewed successes by our battery ?— These are not forced compliments to our officers, for they are only echoings of the rank and file of our Army Corps.

FROM REYNOLDS' BATTERY.—Private letters received from officers of Reynolds' Artillery Battery, dated as late as 25th inst., state that the Battery was then at Warrenton Junction, near the place occupied last year, the guns directed toward the Sulphur Springs. Requisition has been made for two guns, to replace one disabled and another lost at Gettysburg, and when received the Battery will be once more fully equipped. It has 123 men and a full complement of horses. All were well. Major Reynolds is in command of five batteries, and serves as Inspector of Artillery also. The army passed over nearly the same route as that pursued last year, when Lee was followed on his retreat to the Rappahannock. The country is laid waste completely by the repeated passage through it of hostile armies.
— We are glad to add that Capt. Reynolds is now rapidly recovering from the effects of the wound he received at Gettysburg, and will probably be able to return to duty at the expiration of his leave.

DEATH OF MYRON H. MATTHEWS.—-A letter from Lieut. Geo. Breck of Reynolds' Battery, published in the Union of yesterday, announced the death of Myron H. Matthews of that Battery. The sad news also reached the friends here in a letter from Corporal Riggar of the same company.
Lieut. Breck says :
We reported to Gen. Gibbon, 2d Corps, Monday afternoon, and took position to enable him to take possession of a bridge across the above named river. It was while in this position that private Myron Matthews, of our battery, was shot through the neck by a rebel sharpshooter, the ball passing through near the left shoulder. He was conveyed to a hospital and though the wound was a serious one, it thought it would not prove fatal. Young Matthews died, however, Wednesday, and is buried not far from the hospital and from where I am now writing. This is the only casualty that has happened to the battery. We have been wonderfully preserved. We feel and deeply regret the loss of our comrade, and sympathize with his friends and relatives in their bereavement.
Mr. Matthews was well known in this city, to which he came when very young, in which he passed his childhood. He was for a long time employed in the office of the Daily American in this city, and after the consolidation of that paper with the DEMOCRAT, still continued to work at his trade.
He was at various times connected with the Indianapolis Journal, the Memphis Appeal and a daily published in Chicago, and for a long time was a correspondent of the Chicago Times and this paper. At the breaking out of hostilities he was doing business in Chicago. He went to the army with the celebrated Chicago Zouaves, but was stricken down by typhoid fever after an absence of only thirty days.— Upon his recovery he returned to this city, joined Reynolds' Battery, and went with it to the field. He passed through many battles, and never received a wound, until the one which caused his death. He was much beloved be all who knew him, and his death will be seriously mourned by a large circle of friends. He entered the army from motives of the purest patriotism, and served his country with great efficiency. Indeed, his patriotic impulses were so strong that nothing could induce him to remain at home, when he knew that his country was in danger.
The very day of his death he wrote a letter to his mother from his cot in the hospital, in which he said he was severely wounded, but in the opinion of the doctor would get well. He had the use of but one arm, and evidently wrote with extreme difficulty. He died that same evening at eleven o'clock.
Deceased was a brother of Quartermaster George Matthews, of the 8th Cavalry, James Matthews of the 14th Artillery, and Henry Matthews of the DEMOCRAT. He was 32 years of age.

From Reynolds' Artillery—Extracts from a Private letter by a West Bloomfield Boy.
Dear Father—Our Christmas dinner has arrived. St. Nicholas comes to the aid of the Quartermaster. What matters it that the dinner came two days after the day? What does it signify that I, individually, stood guard on that most festive day of the whole round year? If there be enough of food left in the good city of Rochester to victual a ten days' siege from the expected foreign foe, all this most independent Battery asks is that they may be left unmolested on this side the Potomac, until the stock of provisions now on hand, can be consumed. To particularize, the boxes arrived on the company's grounds, a little before dinner today and immediately after that meal the men were drawn up in line before the Captain's quarters, and the individual packages were delivered as the names were called. The company then made a countermarch by file left, and as the line passed the officers' tent, each right hand filled itself with small cakes, while almost every left was tugging at its owner's personal share of the booty. For the next hour newly discovered packages were coming to light, and cannoniers were momentarily surprised with fresh testimonials of home generosity, and home bounty. Even as I write, the officers are passing round the lines of tents distributing new shares from new boxes, and meeting fresh cheers from crowds of grateful recipients.
Indeed, such distributions are so often repeated that a new arrival is getting to be looked upon as a good joke, and the growing collection of boxes, kegs, bags, and jars, is in fact quite laughable. Poultry is especially plenty. There are at least a half dozen stuffed fowls in each tent, and spiced meats such as Jacob loved. Lordly turkeys have bowed their red crests to the rites of the feast; spiteful geese, rich with stuffing and brown with baking, have hissed their last hiss and quiet domestic chickens, once "laid" in the nest, are now "laid" on the platter. Nothing has been forgotten. Rolls of rich yellow butter appear from the folds of clean white napkins, short flaky pies, sit flat as journeymen tailors, on the board; preserved fruits peer with flushed cheeks through the confinement of their crystal cells; cakes of the smaller species are well represented; and the huge brown ham is in its place, with casks of sharp pickles, and bundles of crisp celery for relishes.
The twin brotherhood of the fragrant tobacco leaf—the smokers and the chewers—are we supplied for many a dreamy hour; Besides we are the grateful recipients of crackers and cheese, apples and oysters, sugar and nuts, sausages and gingerbread, and roast ducks, and—and excuse me, I have'nt time. Truly, St. Nicholas comes to the aid of the Quartermaster, and the bounty of the Christmas store, eclipses all the fair pretensions of open-handed but plain Uncle Sam.
We have eaten and are satisfied and many baskets remain. We are almost as grateful to our distant friends, as were the famished thousands to the Master of the miraculously increased loaves and fishes. Plenty has a charm which never lessens, while the peculiar attractions of a particular goose or pie diminish as the appetite becomes surfeited. So it is, that after unlimited access to our Christmas dainties, our appreciation of animal relish is destroyed; while there is left to our exercise a more than sleepy after dinner satisfaction.
It would be an unpardonable neglect, almost an insult to the ladies if the gaily colored, and softly netted caps, which came with the eatable things should be forgotten. If they are for smoking we thank them in the connection for the accompanying cigars and tobacco. If they were intended for skating, wherefore was the ice withheld. If they are for neither use in particular, they will serve a most useful purpose while sleeping in the tents. Thank the ladies for the night caps.
By the by I am not so sure that the slippers enclosed in my bundle are very far from hospital duty, for I fear I shall be under the surgeon's care long enough before all my provisions are exhausted. When I look into the box I am compelled to exclaim in the words assigned to King Cotton on the occasion of a smoking shell being served at his kingly board, "Is'nt that a dainty dish to set before a King." Instead of sending us the requisites for a Christmas dinner, you have provided an abundance for a holiday carnival. I assure you that instead of engendering a home-sick feeling, the box will ward off all yearnings for home privileges, at least until the good things are gone, and I am inclined to believe that the final change to our old fare will convert plain rice and split pea soup into a temporary luxury. The H-s and myself send greeting to Mrs. J. P., and desire to express our gratitude for the package of maple sugar which she so kindly included in our store.
Believe me we shall ever feel a lively gratitude towards our New York friends for their very bountiful consideration, and Rochester and vicinity will always look fairer for this testimonial of her bounty.
Before closing this sheet I have the pleasure of stating that our new invoice of United States clothing has arrived. The blankets come in the guise of a friend in need, but the other articles of wardrobe are about as needful for our comfort as was the daily change of brocade or muslin to the fastidious lady of Madison Square.
* * * * *
Our most common expression on the receipt of new things is, "Who would'nt sell a farm to go as a soger;" but the appropriate ditty begins, " Oh I'm glad I'm in this Army, &c."
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The late Battles in Maryland—Description Given Lieut. Breck, of Reynolds' Battery.
The following letter received this morning from Lieut. Breck has been rather slow in coming to hand, but it contains much that will interest the reader, and we give it to the exclusion of some other matter to-day:
September 18th, 1862.
DEAR UNION : Long before this reaches its destination you will have heard of the great battle of yesterday, near the place mentioned in the date of my letter. It will be known, probably, as the Battle of Sharpsburg, and known, too, as the greatest and most terrific battle ever fought, as yet, on the American soil. So it is pronounced by many here on, the field who participated in the seven days' battle before Richmond, and in other engagements connected with the rebellion, and by those who have witnessed the severest contests since the war commenced, What the number of killed and wounded may be I do not know, but it must be very great, and much greater on the Confederate side than on our own, as was evident on going over the battle field this morning. Many, nearly all of our own dead were buried, and the wounded had all been brought off, and so had the Confederate wounded, with few exceptions; but their dead lay in files - in winrows—many rods long, and so closely that their bodies touched each other; and then all over the field, wherever the battle was waged, scattered here and there, were the lifeless remains--terribly mangled in some instances by shot and shell of the rebel force. In greater numbers they lay, I was told, in some woods held by the enemy, where were poured shot and canister from our guns and cannon, in the most destructive manner.
Reynolds' Battery was in the fight from its commencement till near its close, and at times was engaged in very hot work. Before narrating the part we took in the strife, we will inform our readers that we broke up camp at Lisbon, where my last was written, on Friday noon of last week, and took up our line of march on the Baltimore and Frederick turnpike road, passing through Poplar Springs and Ridgeville, arriving at Newmarket quite late at night, where we encamped till the next morning. When we left Lisbon, we expected to march as far as Ridgeville only, but the rebels having evacuated Newmarket, we pushed on to that place, a distance of eleven or twelve miles from Lisbon.
At Ridgeville the Union flag was displayed, which created some enthusiastic cheers amongst our brigades, and at Newmarket there was a still greater display of the good old flag, and one or two buildings were illuminated. The fact of finding such a strong Union sentiment in these towns, or villages, so recently occupied by the rebels, caused our soldiers to give many an energetic cheer on reaching them. A Union man in Newmarket informed me that where our battery encamped the night we were there a rebel battery was placed the night previous, and in the same field, which was his property, two or three thousand of Stewart's Cavalry were quartered. The rebels had appropriated some twenty-fire or thirty tons of his hay, paying him in part with Confederate scrip and the balance with nothing. They found but few sympathizers in Newmarket.
Saturday we marched to Frederick City, arriving there about six p. M., and encamped on a hill this side of Monococy River—a position commanding a fine view of the whole city. Monococy Bridge is a venerable curiosity. It was built in 1809. It is constructed entirely of stone, with four large arches, is about one thousand feet in length, and a view of this structure beneath it, form either bank of the river, is one of the grandest sights we almost ever saw in the way of bridge architecture. Its immensity is one of its most striking features. At the east end of the bridge is a stone tower, resembling somewhat in appearance of a Turkish mosque. Inscribed on it are the names of the builder of the bridge, the architect, the superintendent of the turnpike road at the time of the construction of the bridge, and several other inscriptions.
Sunday morning we marched through Frederick city amidst the waving of flags and the huzzas of the citizens, demonstrating very clearly the loyalty and patriotism of the place. Many of the ladies had Union badges attached to their dresses; boys and girls were decorated with miniature flags; old men looked exultant, and a perfect ovation was received by our troops. Across one of the streets were unfurled the Stars and Stripes, inscribed with the words of the old hero and patriot, Andrew Jackson, "The Union; it must be preserved." Yes, and it shall be preserved, was the response of every soldier's heart as he read the sentiment and witnessed the affection displayed for our country's banner in the city of Frederick. Such demonstrations of patriotism, so unlooked for, had a marked effect in inspiring the Union troops, and they marched along up the steep hills and mountains with a firmer and more elastic step.
We reached Middleton about noon, and just before our arrival Gen. McClellan passed along the road with staff and cavalry escort. The enthusiasm displayed on seeing him was unbounded. We shall have something more to say on this point before closing this letter. During our march cannonading had been heard most of the way, and on reaching the top of Cachotin mountain we saw the smoke of both Federal and rebel batteries on or near the slope of South Mountain. At Middleton we went into a field to rest a little while, but no sooner had we got unhitched than orders came to hitch again and move forward. We did so, taking our position in a small field on the right of the turnpike, South Mountain being about a mile in front of us. We did not unlimber, our services not being needed, or if needed, almost impossible to render any efficient service on account of the nature of the battle ground. A few pieces only of artillery could be served effectively, as no position could be obtained to plant more. The rebels were on top of the mountain in the woods, and artillery was principally used, to ascertain, if possible, the position of the enemy.
About 8 o'clock in the afternoon our forces were drawn up in line of battle, under command of Gen. Hooker, and began to move simultaneously up the slope of the mountain from the right, left and centre. Correspondents have furnished a full account of the battle that ensued, and our battery not being engaged, I shall not attempt to give any description of it myself. Suffice is to say, that soldiers never fought more valiantly than did ours, and never under more, and in all the battles I have witnessed, and never under such disadvantageous circumstances. To attack an enemy many thousand strong, and apparently very securely and safely lodged in mountain fastnesses, to march up a very high and rugged mountain, exposed to the most deadly of fires, in a steady and unbroken line, to encounter the enemy, provided with a strong defence in munitions or war, covered by woods and concealed behind stone walls, and then fairly and squarely beat the enemy, drive him up to the top of the mountain and cause him to fly precipitately down the other side, capture a large number of prisoners, and hold possession of the whole battle ground, this certainly may be called a true and decided victory, and such was the result of the battle of South Mountain, or of Hagerstown Heights, as called by some. We have to mourn the loss of a brave General killed in that desperate engagement—Gen. Reno. The Pennsylvania Reserves and King's Division fought nobly; They were determined to drive the rebels from the mountain at any cost of life, and so they did, and we are glad to say without a great sacrifice of life.
Sunday night, regiments and divisions passed us on the road to Hagerstown, including many of the new troops. Monday morning we saw the 108th N.Y. Regiment. The fineness and newness of the men's clothes was considerably worn off, and they looked as if they had already seen some hard service. Lieut. Bloss entertained us for a while with some amusing accounts of the experiences the regiment had undergone since breaking up camp on the other side of the Potomac. A child must learn to walk before he can run, and to insist on his doing the latter first, and expect he will do it with the ease and grace of one who has had experience in running matches, is asking and expecting too much. But there is nothing like being "broken in," and becoming accustomed to a thing.
We took up our line of march again Monday morning, but lay in the road all the forenoon, which was crowded with troops and wagons. The number of wagons in our army is immense, we were about to remark equal to the number of men, but not as bad as that. So much luggage and "stuff" must impede the progress of the army in many instances, when rapid marches have to be made. We passed through Boonsboro late Monday afternoon, and encamped near the town that night. At Boonesboro we saw a number of rebel prisoners, and a citizen told us that the Confederates had passed through there that forenoon in full retreat. Two or three companies of the 8th Illinois Cavalry chased about a hundred of Stewart's Cavalry through the town and beyond it, making them run their horses as if for dear life. Some captures were made. This citizen also informed us that Jackson and Lee had utterly failed in getting recruits for their army in Maryland. Perhaps three or four hundred joined the rebel ranks, and that was all. The towns and villages which they had invaded were mainly loyal, and in many cases the citizens had fled to Pennsylvania or adjoining settlements for fear they might be impressed into the rebel service. The statements of this gentleman were true, as borne out by facts since learned, and we know what a total failure Jackson has made coming into Maryland. Instead of obtaining thousands to join his rebel horde, he has lost them in killed and wounded on the field of battle, and his deluded army have had all their bright visions of plenty to eat and drink and wear, and a good time generally in our Northern States, dissipated like a dream. We may not be able to "bag" them, as fondly hoped and wished, before they make their escape from Maryland, but we have whipped and dispirited them terribly. Many of the rebel wounded and prisoners say if they are obliged to go back into Virginia again, they will desert the army.
Tuesday morning we moved on towards Sharpsburg, but on arriving at a little settlement called Cheapville, I believe, we found most of our army drawing up in line of battle, on a hill far in front of us, this side of a ravine or river. The Rebels were throwing shells into our advanced forces, but a sharp and lively reply was elicited from some of our batteries which soon silenced the enemy's. We were stationed in a field on the left of the road till the afternoon, when we moved forward a short distance, crossed the road to our right, marched up a hill and then advanced thro' a piece of woods, crossed the river, and then went forward about two miles through grass, ploughed, and corn fields, and about 8 o'clock at night, we took up our position near some woods, where the fighting commenced. During this forward movement of our battery, heavy cannonading was going on at intervals, with now and then some infantry firing. While marching up the road, Gen. McClellan, with staff, rode by us, and what do you suppose "little Mac" did. Why he saluted every driver individually, and every cannoneer if marching singly, in the same way. And he did it with that pleasant smile of his, which has been so often remarked about. And this was done by Major General Geo. B. McClellan, who commands all the forces of the Potomac, who ranks over all other generals in our great army, excepting Gen. Halleck. Which of our other great generals ever did this, or is in the habit of doing this, while passing a company of artillery, roughly dressed and roughly looking from the effects of long marches, severe fighting "and hardships of many kinds?" Soldiers have written, and are writing, constantly about the enthusiasm manifested at the sight of McClellan. It is all true, every word of it. We can't describe it. It beats everything we ever witnessed, and it comes from the heart. McClellan has the hearts of the whole army, every one of them. What a cheering there was yesterday noon, near the close of the battle as he rode along the lines of the different brigades and divisions! The soldiers were perfectly wild with ecstatic delight. Caps, blankets and coats went up in the air, and the men shouted and yelled, and some of them actually cried with joy, at the, sight of their General. They know he is a patriot, and they know he is a soldier. They love him, they trust him, and they will follow him no matter where he leads. And I tell you it is no unworthy love, no unwarranted trust, no following after an inefficient, unskillful and ignorant General. McClellan is a General, a great general. It was exhibited in yesterday's battle, and has been exhibited in all of his previous battles. He may have been and may be defeated, but it has been and will be, we believe, the result of circumstances over which McClellan has had or can have no control— circumstances superceding his power to manage. But perhaps more about Gen. McClellan in a future letter.
At different times last night there was a sharp rattle of musketry by our and the enemy's pickets, who were almost on a. line with each other, in some places so near together that our own pickets quarrelled with the enemy's, to see which side of a certain fence they should occupy. Very early this morning, I think I may say before daybreak or just at dawn, there was a loud volley of musketry, followed by another and another, which made infantry, cavalry and artillery spring to arms, and which proved to be the commencement of the day's battle. It was begun by the Pennsylvania Reserves, under command of Gen. Seymour. As they lay asleep, their arms stacked along the edge of the woods, a volley was fired upon them by the rebels, knocking down the guns, but creating no panic or confusion, for immediately the brave boys from the old Keystone State sprung tip, seized their faithful weapons and went to work in good earnest, pouring volley after volley into the rebels ranks, and driving them back. The desperate struggle had begun, and for ten or twelve hours it continued with unabated violence. Occasionally for a few minutes there would be a lull, but then the conflict would be resumed with renewed energy and greater desperation on the rebel side. The volleys of musketry seemed to be louder than ever, and the roar of artillery shook the earth.— All our previous battle scenes, observations and experiences were small compared to this. But it is not for me to enter upon a general description of the battle. More graphic and able pens than mine must do it, and have done it ere this. My acquaintance with the scenes, incidents, the various regiments, batteries, &c., associated with and engaged in the terrible conflict is necessarily very limited, as it was necessary for me to remain with our battery, which was in three or four different positions only, and at times, considerably isolated from the main forces that were engaged. The line of battle extended as far as I could judge, about a mile and a half, from a mile to three or four miles this side of the Potomac, and was waged in open fields, woods, on hills and over an extent of ground of hundreds of acres. The rebels, as is customary, fought as much under shelter as they possibly could, but they fought to kill.
We opened with our battery on some high ground in the field, where we encamped during the night, firing on a rebel battery about 150 yards opposite us, more or less concealed by woods. Their reply was directed to our left, principally, where our infantry were engaged, supported by other batteries. We fired for about an hour and a half, when one of Gen. Patrick's aids, riding up, told Captain Reynolds that the General wanted us to come and: support his brigade. We proceeded to do so, marching through a grove and across a ploughed into a grass field. On reaching here Gen. Hooker ordered us to file to the left and try and form in battery on the right of a piece of woods. It was at this time that our forces had been flanked by the enemy and driven back very nearly a mile, and the rebels were charging on them in a corn field not many yards in front of us.
When we went to take a position, Thompson's battery, attached to Gen. Duryea's brigade, was engaged in pouring canister into the rebel ranks, then advancing and forcing our troops to retire! It was planted on the brow of a small hill, just this side of the corn field, and we had been ordered to go in with our battery on their left if the ground would admit. It would not admit of our doing so, and an officer rode up and remarked that it would be folly to attempt it. The balls were then flying about us, and onward was coming the enemy. Thompson's battery continued to fire round after round, but at the loss, either killed or wounded, of nearly every cannoneer, who were being picked off by the rebel sharpshooters. Almost every horse was killed and the pieces were obliged to be left, but were afterwards recovered.
The 105th N. Y. regiment were falling back in a hurry and Gen. Duryea, who was on foot, was trying to rally them in line again. It appeared doubtful for awhile, but it was finally accomplished.
We remained at a rest, our guns limbered, anxious to get to firing if possible, but it was madness to undertake it, unless we wished to lose our pieces, horses, and very probably our lives. We therefore retired with the infantry, they falling back gradually. The cause of their repulse, I have been informed, was owing to new regiments ordered forward for their relief; but they could not or did not stand the destructive fire of the rebels, and so broke and ran, running through the old regiments, and for a time creating a kind of stampede. Matters looked dubious enough about now, and the tide of battle seemed to be going hotly and greatly against us. The rebels were yelling to the top of their voice, confident that the day was thers. We had lost all the ground that we had gained, and could it be recovered? Patrick's brigade had borne a noble part in charging upon and driving the enemy, and not until they were out of ammuniton did they not until they were out of ammuniton did they fall back. And there they checked the advance of the rebel horde, and with the assistance of a battery kept it bay until reinforcements came up. The rebels did not remain long victorious. Fresh regiments of troops came to the rescue, and now the clear and distinct hurrah could be heard, which we knew came from our men, so greatly in contrast was it with the savage yell of the rebels. The hurrah assured us that our troops were recovering their lost ground. The enemy was being driven back.
We were ordered into the field again and opened fire on a battery on the right of the grass field above mentioned. The rebel battery was throwing shot and shell in our midst very lively, and it was a question whether we should be able to silence it. Our ammunition was fast becoming exhausted, our horses not being able to draw a full supply. We would fire what we had and accomplish what we could. The result was favorable. We put a stop to the firing of the hostile battery and have since learned that we damaged it greatly; not, however, without two of our men being wounded. Corporal Peter Proseus from Palmyra, while in the act of pointing and ranging his piece, was struck in both legs by the explosion of a shell. One leg received a terrible flesh wound and the other was broken. He fell, and on going up to him he remarked, "Keep on firing. Never mind me, and be sure you give it to them." Noble man-a hero, indeed. There he lay with both legs—one mangled and the other broken-and both, it appeared, must be amputated but not a murmur escaped his lips. On the contrary, he would not have his gun cease firing on his account, and laughingly said, "I guess I am not hurt so badly after all. He was carried from the field and it is thought both legs will be saved. We saw him this morning and he was in the best of spirits.
Cornelius Roda, from Rochester, was wounded slightly in the shoulder in this engagement. When the retreat took place and the rifle and musket balls were flying in our midst so profusely three of our men were wounded, one quite seriously. Myron Annis, from Scottsville, was wounded in the breast and hand by a ball, the ball lodging in the palm of his hand. He was doing very well from last accounts. Levi Sharp, from Penfield, was slightly wounded in the head. Frederick Deits, from Scottsville, was slightly wounded near his side. Captain Reynolds had a narrow escape. A fragment of a shell passed under his arm, slightly grazing it.
We had six horses killed and wounded, and one wheel disabled.
Our last engagement was in the ploughed field, with a section of another battery, where our guns were served very efficiently. We got out of ammunition, but finding a limber in the field that had been abandoned we went to it and emptied its contents, consisting of about twenty shell and some canister, which we fired.
About noon the rattle of musketry, which had been incessant since daylight and the loud peals of artillery, ceased. The victory was ours. There was cannonading commenced by the rebels not long after, but our batteries silenced it a short time.
The carnage had been awful. Nine of our Generals had been killed and wounded. The nation, will mourn deeply the loss of that venerable and experienced general, Gen. Mansfield. Every general in the field seemed to be foremost in the battle, leading and cheering on their respective commands. They appeared to be regardless, though not reckless, of all danger. And the men! Most splendidly and heroically did they perform their duty. Every regiment in Patrick's brigade captured a rebel flag!
But again, (I have written too long a letter) and a very unsatisfactory one, it seems, to your correspondent. Many items have been omitted, which, I think, are of interest, but time and space will not admit mentioning them at present, I have watched a spare moment here and there amidst the pressure of business matters to write and writing a letter, for public perusal, under such circumstances or in such a manner isn't at all satisfactory.
It is very quiet to-day. Occasionally the firing of a gun can be heard. Our dead are being buried, and our wounded have been taken to the various hospitals about the field. Nearly one third of the wounded are Confederates. The rebel dead lie all over on the battle ground What the number of killed and wounded is I am unable to state. Many of our regiments were badly cut up, and the rebel ranks were mowed down in swaths. How many... like this must there be before... Another one is expected to-... Bad news from Harper's... victories and success of the... State of Maryland.
Yesterday was the anniversary of... zation of Reynolds' Battery… tember, l861, and the 17th of... are two days that we can never... was a remarkable event in our ... as was... name down on the enlistment roll, and the second certainly not less so.
FRIDAY, Sept.19.
The rebels are gone, have skedaddled across the river. They stole a march on our army last night. Maryland is again free. The traitor Lee will not issue any more of his insulting and treasonable proclamations in this State. A pity we could not have "bagged" Jackson and his horde before he made his escape. The whole army have advanced. We are now encamped in the woods the rebels occupied yesterday. They left all their dead unburied. A horrible, horrible sight we witnessed on reaching the rebel lines, in the vicinity of which, or on this side our forces were not allowed to pass yesterday. We saw hundreds of dead bodies lying in rows and in piles, and scattered all over, looking the picture of all that is sickening, harrowing, horrible. O what a terrible sight! Some of the rebel wounded were left on the field. Many of the dead had on Federal uniforms. The woods bear marks of the destructive work of our shells. Great limbs of trees are torn off, and a house near the woods is literally riddled by balls. We found a large iron cannon left behind, and every thing indicates a speedy flight of the rebels. We rest tonight to go forward again early to-morrow morning.

From Reynolds Battery.
April 24,1863.
DEAR UNION: The non-commissioned officers of a company hold a very significant relation to that company, and determine in a great measure its character and efficiency. In its workings and connections they are the connecting link between the commissioned officers and the rank and file. Upon them devolve certain duties, important and responsible, on the faithful discharge of which are the interests of the company, as also their own personal interests and advancement. In a limited sense they are commanders, and respect and obedience is to be rendered to them by those under their command just as much as to the captain of a company or to the General commanding an army even. Military rule is very plain and strict about this matter, and the private who is disrespectful to his Corporal or Sergeant, and is disobedient to his orders, cannot properly escape with impunity. He commits an offense which military law, in some instances, according to the degree of the offence, follows with very severe and shameful punishment. As has often been remarked, obedience in military service is the first and great law, and the non-observance of it renders it impossible to have discipline, efficiency, or anything else, except demoralization, in a military organization, however small or extensive that organization may be. This obedience must begin, way up with the Major General, and extend down to the private soldier. A slight disobedience of orders, anywhere along the scale, may disarrange and upset the most skillful and important plans and combinations, and be productive of disastrous consequences. This has too frequently been sadly illustrated in the conduct of our unhappy civil war.
As with commissioned, so with non-commissioned officers, it rests with them, to a great extent whether the respect due them, shall be given heartily and cheerfully, or reluctantly, and forcibly. The display of manly and soldierly qualities will be almost sure to win for the noncommissioned officer that esteem and confidence, and ready obedience, which are so necessary to gain in order to make a military position an effective and pleasant one, and which, when rendered, greatly relieve military service of those rigid, and I may say, machine-like features that are attributed to it. Soldiers under our volunteer system are not regarded as "mere machines," however they may be estimated in the regular army, and hence the necessity of treating them like men and companions in a common cause, and yet, in doing this, the proper etiquette and rules relating to soldiers and their superiors in office, need not, ought not to, for the good of the service, be departed from.
But I am deviating too many lines upon this matter, when my object was to introduce and chronicle anew the names of the non-commissioned officers now belonging to Battery " L," in consideration of the changes and promotions that have been made in the company since it was first organized, and in justice to the officers themselves. The names of officers supporting straps are often seen in print, sometimes, it may be, to the expulsion and injustice of their subordinates who wear chevrons, the latter, in many cases, deserving more conspicuous and honorable mention than the former. A Captain's or Lieutenant's reputation for valor or efficiency in the field is not unfrequently achieved for him by the good conduct and qualities of his non-commissioned officers. Especially is this the case in the artillery service, where a Sergeant is Chief of a piece, and a corporal has command of a gun detachment, and the pointing and firing of that gun.
The following are the names of the non-commissioned officers of battery "L," 1st Regiment N.Y. Light artillery:
Orderly Sergeant--Charles De Mott.
Quartermaster Sergeant—Wm. P. Hays.
1st Sergeant, Thos. Steenstra; 2d do, Windfield S. Chase; 3d do, Wm. H. Shelton; 4th do, Amos Gibbs; 5th do; Chas. A. Rooney; 6th do, Wm. Connor.
Corporals—Melville Buell, Andrus H. Holcombe, Myron H. Mathews, Webster Eaton, John G. Campbell, Egbert Hoekstra, Henry W. Sherman, Geo. F. Tillotson, Chas. W. Hale, Andrew Turley, Frederick Deits, Geo. Blake.
Battery: "L" has always been favored with non-commissioned officers, who, with few exceptions, have done credit and honor to themselves and the company. In camp, on the march, and in the field, they have proved worthy of their appointments and promotions. I should like to begin at the head of the list herewith published, and particularize the characteristics, personel, &c., of each non-commissioned officer, but time will not permit at present a hasty description of more than two or three.
There's Orderly Sergeant DeMott, who was formerly 1st sergeant, and whose connection with the Battery dates back to its earliest organization. I person he is tall, with a good display of limbs, not over graceful in his movements, they denoting more vigor than elegance. His red hair, shaven quite closely to his head, his small eyes, which are generally half closed when engaged in conversation, and his heavy beard and moustache of quite a fiery color, covering and very nearly concealing his face, give him rather a singular looking appearance. He entered the service of his country from motives of the purest patriotism and his love for the Union and devotion to its cause have not diminished in the least belong service, but increased if anything. Whatever may be the conduct of the war, the policy of the administration, the blunders committed, the defeats sustained, Orderly DeMott's motto is, "The cause is as good and pure as it ever was, and to abandon it or dispair at success, is cowardly and unmanly." His honesty and uprightness of character, regard for truth, correct and exemplary deportment, combined with his prompt, faithful and obedient qualities as a soldier, have, of course, gained for him that respect and esteem which such characteristics and qualities always command. His sincerity and earnestness of manner in the discussion of any subject, is immediately apparent, as also a certain amount of excitability of temperament. He fills the position of Orderly Sergeant well, a post which every soldier knows is one of labor and responsibility.
Quartermaster Sergeant Hays, is an Ohioan, a thorough, full-bred Buckeye, an excellent representative of that corn-growing, stock-producing, large, magnificent and patriotic State. Of medium height, stout, strong, fleshy; a large, head, a round, full-orbed face, lighted up with a couple of little eyes, whose diminutiveness is increased by their being half shut most of the time, and that shine out from under scanty brows, which by no means overshadow them. His nose is neither Roman nor Grecian, but strictly home-made, purely American style, (my readers must imagine what style that is) which with his small, partially compressed mouth, is indicative of energy, persistency, and I may add, a spirit of pugnacity, which, however, has never particularly manifested itself, excepting in time of battle, when the rebels have found him a hard customer to deal with. His plain, ample, honest, good-natured countenance, the yellowish tinge of his hair and whiskers, and the open, frank expression of his features, have given him the expressive sobriquet of "Sunflower," a flower that is supposed to turn its face ever to the sun, and proclaiming more geniality than beauty.
Quartermaster Hays' connection with the Battery may be said to have been accident, a fortuitous one, as it has proved, to the company. He was passing through Rochester from Columbus, Ohio, his native home and, residence, en route for Boston, to enter the service of the Navy, when he was induced to stop in Rochester a day or two, putting up at the New England House, where his attention was arrested by a conspicuous recruiting bill, setting forth in patriotic and persuasive language, and vividly portraying in a picture representing a mounted battery coming into action—the duty of every young man to enlist in defence of his country, and the great desirableness of serving in the artillery branch of service in preference to any other. Reading the one and looking at the other, caused the young man to call at the recruiting office of the then organizing Reynolds' Battery. The result was his enlistment in the company, and another volunteer added to the army. Though a perfect stranger, he forthwith began to work for the practical conversion of others to the Federal cause. He had been a first-class locomotive engineer on a railroad in Ohio, over which he always made rapid speed with his steam horse, never failing to make time, but generally ahead. His go-a-head-it-ive-ness was illustrated in the enterprise of recruiting, and has been amply demonstrated all the time he has been in the company.
On the arrival of the company in Washington he was appointed 1st Corporal, and before we left there he was promoted to a Sergeant. No drivers, cannoneers, horses, gun or caisson in the battery received more attention than his. Always on hand, ready to do anything or go any where whenever ordered.
In consequence of the sickness, and absence of Quartermaster Sergeant A. A. Ganyard—recently discharged from service on account of continued disability -- it became necessary, at the commencement of last fall's campaign, to appoint some member of the company to act in his place. Who should he be?
Do my readers know anything about the duties of a Quartermaster and Commissary in the army? Suffice it to say it is the hardest, most perplexing, trying, thankless, difficult post to fill satisfactory there is. A Quartermaster and Commissary is supposed, one would infer from the demands made upon him, to possess the attributes of omniscience, omnipotence, and omnipresence. Soldiers must be fed daily and kept clothed, and horses must eat, and if supplies are furnished promptly, no matter what the circumstances may be about the difficulties of procuring them, of transportation through unfathomable seas of mud, &c. Alas for the pious benedictions bestowed on the poor man!
Now, a Quartermaster Sergeant in a six-gun battery has 110 horses to supply constantly with forage, 150 men to supply daily with rations; has charge of and is responsible for the transportation and safety of all stores required for the company, and his position is one, especially in active service, that demands energy and force of character or action, the qualifications of industry, promptness, faithfulness.
Sergeant Hays possessed all these, and he must therefore act in the capacity of Q. M. Sergeant, and so he did, and to-day he fills that position in the most satisfactory manner. No man in the company is more popular than he— a popularity most meritoriously won. A characteristic of his is, that in the discharge of his duties, ho goes to work as if the fate of the nation hung suspended on his correct performance of them. He displays an earnestness and practicalness worthy of emulation by some of the nation's higher officials.
...mention of Sergeant William H. Shel- ...I will close. He enlisted when he ...y was in Elmira and was among the first [appointed] Sergeants. He hails from Bloomfield, which is unquestionably a better and more desirable field to bloom, that is, to live in, than the tented fields. Sergeant S. however, like thousands of other patriotic young men, could not resist the desire to take part in the struggle for country and nationality, and so down went his name on the enlistment roll and doffing his citizens dress, he arrayed himself in the livery and armor of Uncle Sam. He had just come from the "classic halls of lore," and he brought with him into the army the acquisitions of learning, such for instance as a cultivated taste; an easy; interesting and graceful pen that has occasionally entertained the readers of your cotemporary across the way; treasures of literature, to all this, he brought with him the qualities of a bright, genial and companionable character, and a spice and originality of conversation. Of course, the change from the seat of erudition to the seat of war, from the refinements and luxuries of a pleasant home and civilized society to the roughness, hardships and privations of camp and the field, and the atrocities of warfare was a very sudden and a very great one for Sergeant S. to undergo; when the Battery began its first vigorous and active campaign and soft bread was exchanged for hard tack, fresh beef for raw salt pork, comfortable sleeping quarters indoors or under the spacious cover of a Sibley tent, for a bed on the hard ground, outdoors with the sky for a covering and other changes of a kindred nature were made, no wonder the Sergeant— considering too that he was seriously indisposed at the time, and had been quite sick for several days—remarked to his company commander : "Captain, I never can bring myself down to living on hard tack." He was simply mistaken, that's all, as facts afterwards demonstrated, for it was not long before, with all the rest of the company, officers and men, he began to appreciate the beauties and nourishment of a single "hard tack." The health and ruggedness of his personal appearances attest the good that camp and field life has accomplished for him and I venture to quoth, he is now ready to invoke blessings on the man who first invented hard tack. He is very observant of things and persons and nothing escapes his eye on a march. Is never in a hurry, but takes matters, whether in camp or exposed to a storm of balls and bullets on the battle field, very coolly and tranquilly.
But no more biography for the present.
April 25.—The same old story to relate, namely, " All quiet on the Rappahannock.'' We have occupied our present Camp, four months and three days, a longer period than we have ever occupied any one Camp before. Who would have believed, four months ago, that the Army of the Potomac would have remained inactive, for a third of a year! Nobody's fault, perhaps. Marching and fighting versus rain, snow and Virginia mud, are not an equal match, and the latter has completely triumphed. But surely, there must be a change soon.
It rained nearly all day yesterday, and the day previous it rained a heavy, steady stream, but last night the moon and stars came out brightly, and to-day, it is pleasant and cloudless, though a most violent wind is blowing.
The Paymaster is here paying off Gen. Paul's Brigade, and next Tuesday he says, Battery "L" shall be paid up to March, four months pay. He will be welcomed, but the "Greenbacks" will be welcomed more.
Rifle Pits have been thrown up in the vicinity of our camp, which, when the army moves, will be used against any rebel raids that may be made around here. Dismounted Cavalry will be posted in them, there being, I am told, two thousand cavalry in the army, whom it is impossible, at present, to furnish with horses.
G. B.

Army Correspondence.
Friday Night, May 15,1863.
DEAR UNION:—Since the date of my last we have changed camp twice. Our present encampment is still near White Oak Church, but a decided improvement on the first near the same place. That was old and worn out, having been occupied by troops for months, treeless and grassless, its hard, well trodden sandy and clayey grounds, reflecting the suns rays like a mirror. This is new, in a grove of fine maple and poplar trees, mostly the former kind, under which are pitched tents and paulins, and in whose shade the horses are picketed. In front of the grove, just beyond a little knoll, the battery is parked. Everything is fresh and clean, there is a nice spring of pure drinking water not many yards distant, a good creek to water horses, and surrounding us are hills, fields and woods, green with grass and leaves, dotted with tents, and presenting a picture worthy of an artist's pencil. Indeed, what artist could justly portray the scene?
Were it not the business of a soldier to fight especially now, when vigorous work with sword, musket and cannon is imperatively demanded, we might confess a wish, certainly a willingness, to tarry in this pleasant spot all summer. What soldier loves to fight for the mere sake of fighting? What soldier delights to encounter the whistling zipping minie ball, the whizzing, screeching, crushing cannot shot or shell, or the bayonet's sharp thrust? Where's the soldier who is really "eager for the fray," unhappy restless, vexed, because he is not allowed to smell the smoke of a battle field, and to meet, hand to hand, it may be, in fierce and deadly conflict, the enemy? It may be music and poetry to the ears and minds of some soldiers, the din and carnage of the field of strife. And there may be those who are actually "spoiling for a fight." Our acquaintance, however, with such brave-like, audacious, and sanguinary spirits in the field, who have fully tasted the glories of war at the "front," is limited in the extreme.
When Shakspeare spoke or wrote of "glorious war," he must have referred to it as illustrated in the " tented field" and not on the battle field. We do not dispute that it is sweet and glorious to suffer or die by the hand of warfare, for the sake of country, still, what soldier is there who would not, if he could do so consistent with duty, dispense with such sweetness and gloriousness, preferring to remain gloriously situated in camp, as just at present Battery L is?
But my pen is wandering. The vicissitudes of war may oblige us to vacate our pleasant quarters to-morrow, possibly before the break of day, for we know not how soon orders to move may come. Present appearences indicate a spell of inactivity, albeit the troops have been ordered to keep their haversacks and knapsacks supplied with eight days rations. The enemy may attack us before we do him, for it was no longer ago than last night, about the hour of 12, that the whole first corps, excepting the batteries, was suddenly ordered to be under arms, in anticipation of an attack by the rebels, who, it was reported, were moving in large force down the river, with pontoon bridges, with the intention, apparently, of crossing. Tents were struck, baggage and wagons were sent to the rear and there was every token of a visit from Gen. Lee and his army, or a part of it. But they failed to come, and to-day nothing of a warlike character has manifested itself. The quiet on the Rappahannock is again resumed. Near the banks of each side of the river, in fields of grass or clover, Federal and Confederate army horses are grazing, grateful, no doubt, after their late severe toils, for such luxurious bounty and repose.
This morning I visited the hospital where three of our wounded boys — Sergeant Clare and privates Husted and Turley— are lying, they not having been removed to Washington yet. They are doing well and are favored with excellent quarters, for a field hospital. There are about thirty or forty patients here, most of them occupying a large, double, two-story brick house, and the rest are in tents. This residence is or was the property of Major Henry Fitzhugh, an officer in the rebel service reported to have been killed when the 34th Michigan and 6th Wisconsin regiments crossed the Rappahannock and seized the Heights on the opposite side on the 29th of April. If this report be true, the owner of this stately mansion and magnificent estate was killed in plain view of his house, for it is situated about a quarter or half a mile, directly in rear of where the crossing of the river was effected, the house being located on a high rise of ground, which descends in a gentle slope to an extensive plain of hundreds of acres, reaching as far as the Rappahannock. An oval fence surrounds the eminence just where it begins, and the grounds about the house are adorned with trees and are exceedingly beautiful. A number of white frame huts and a small brick building, are in close proximity to the old Virginia mansion; the former, once the habitations of slaves, and the latter now occupied by the wife and family of the rebel Major. The slaves are all missing, the large barns are nearly torn down, the house with its once costly and rich furniture is greatly despoiled; its rooms, are tenanted by our sick and wounded, and the place, though not a total wreck, is one of the many thousand illustrations of the devastating effects of this civil war. What know the people of the North, materially considered, about the terrible waste and havoc caused in Southern fields and homes by this cruel war? Literally nothing, for their own pleasant and beautiful homes have not been visited by war's ravages, in the destruction of property, the cessation of business, etc., as evidenced in the striking contrast presented between the two sections of the country. The ground is strongly taken by some persons, especially among soldiers and officers, that the North will not become fully aroused as to the necessity of sending every available man into the army and using every possible means for crushing the rebellion, until some of its homes have been invaded and desolated by the Southern forces, until its people have tasted the bitter fruits of the war in the waste and ruin of their real estates, of their lands, farms, gardens and residences. Then there will be such a rising of the people, that the rebellion must speedily and inevitably be crushed. Then the war will be prosecuted with unsparing and unceasing vigor. We confess we are not at all desirous for the invasion of Northern homes by rebel hordes and bless Heaven that they have been permitted to remain unmolested in this respect. The numberless hearts and firesides that have been made desolate by the war, are enough or surely ought to be, to convince the North how necessary it is to put forth every effort for the immediate suppression of the rebellion, and to stimulate it to the most energetic action. If wholesale destruction of a mortal character, if the immolation of thousands and tens of thousands of human beings, from Northern villages, towns and cities, is not sufficient to impart a realizing sense of the absolute necessity of employing every means for giving a speedy death blow to this monster rebellion, will material ruin and destruction, help the matter any? It might, when we consider how much more sensibly some, if not many persons, are affected, by touching their material interests, than those relating directly to the loss of human life in their own community, a loss occasioned by the carnage of war.
Since the late battles, there has been a change effected in the organization of the artillery attached to Army Corps, owing to the reduction of the strength of the infantry of divisions.— There is now quite an excess of artillery in proportion to infantry, and a large artillery reserve has been constituted as a consequence, under command of Brig. Gen. B. O. Tyler. The artillery assigned to each corps, is constituted a brigade or battalion under command of the Chief of Artillery of the corps, who is responsible to the Commander of the Corps, and to the Chief of Artillery of the army for his command and administration. The batteries in the 1st corps now number five, whereas there were ten, and constitute a battalion, under command of Col. Wainwright. Battery L is one of these five batteries. They are all camped near each other.
The 88d and 27th N.Y. Regiments started for home to-day and nearly all the two years' troops must be home or homeward bound ere this. The nine months men will follow shortly, and when they are gone, the Army of the Potomac, taken in connection with the loss of the services of 15,000 soldiers as the result of the recent " brilliant achievements" will be greatly shorn of its strength. A Conscription Bill was passed two or three months ago, if we are not very much mistaken, but like some other acts we have read about, it appears to be as "inoperative as the Pope's bull against the comet." What's the difficulty? Is there nobody to draft, or can't the draft be enforced? We don't believe the former and as to the latter, we humbly and respectfully suggest to our worthy President, that he appoint the two years' troops who are now at home or going home to put... tion the aforesaid Conscription bill, and our word for it, there will be such a speedy and vigorous enforcement of the bill, as to create a terrible rattling among the "dry bones," and to confound with amazement Jeff Davis and his satellites, at the immediate and mighty increase in strength and numbers of the Federal army. We venture to say that the "Old Thirteenth" or the 88d Regiments would offer to enforce the Conscription Act free gratis, if intimated, their assistance or agency was wanted, in the matter. The "old Veterans" of those noble, tried and war-scarred organizations would make excellent " Provost Marshals." "Little Mac," when on the Peninsula, kept crying for "more reinforcements." The President had none to send. A year, or nearly a year has elapsed since then, and the cry is again repeated by the entire army. Are there none to send now ?
In my letter descriptive of the engagement of our Battery May 2d, I was made to say in your columns that we had "ten men killed and several slightly wounded." It ought to have read one man killed and nine men seriously and slightly wounded.

From Reynolds' Battery.
May 20th, 1863.
DEAR UNION,—It is with pleasure that we record several promotions which have taken place, very recently, in our company and regiment. John A. Reynolds, the chief organizer of, and for more than a year and a half the Captain of Battery L, or as it is more familiarily known, Reynolds' Battery, has been promoted to a Majorship in the 1st New York Light Artillery Regiment, his commission dating back to March 6th, 1st Lieut. Gilbert H. Reynolds, has received the appointment of Captain, and now commands the Battery. Charles H. Anderson, of Palmyra, has been promoted from 2nd to 1st Lieutenant, and William H. Bower, formerly First Sergeant in the company, has been appointed 2nd Lieutenant. Need we assure our readers how eminently deserving of these promotions the above named officers are? Their connection with the Battery and services in the cause of their country have been of a character, which, your correspondent feels peculiarly qualified to say, entitle them in a marked sense to the honors of their new positions.
This afternoon Major Reynolds had the company drawn up in line, and announced to the men the promotions that had been made, and then addressed a few remarks expressive of the very pleasant and friendly relations which had always existed between him and the Company, the prompt obedience and hearty co-operation they had always given him, the bravery and fortitude they had always evinced in time of action with the enemy, and of his great indebtedness to them for the good name the Battery sustained, for their good conduct in camp and in the field. He hoped and believed that they would display the same, manly and soldierly qualities under the command of his successor, as they had exhibited under him. Though parting from them as their Captain, his interest in them and the Battery would not abate, and he should continue to share with them the experiences of a soldier's life. Major B. elluded to the fact, well known to most of the company, that the rank of Majorship was offered him soon after the organization of the company was effected, but he refused it, and had always been glad that he did so. Now, however, he felt that he could not in justice to others meriting positions or higher positions, act as a barrier to their obtaining them, and grateful for the honor that had been conferred upon him, he should try and prove worthy of it. He had been assigned to no command as yet, and it might be he should have a command in the Artillery Brigade of the 1st corps, in which case Battery L would doubtless constitute a part of his command.
At the conclusion of Maj. Reynolds' remarks, three hearty and vociferous cheers were given for him by the company, and these were followed with three more for our new Captain, three for Lieut. Anderson, and the same for Lieut. Bower. The company then marched to a long table, which had been constructed for the occasion and spread with paulins, in our beautiful camp, on which there was piled up something more relishable than "hard tack," and on each side of the table, on the ground, were rows of twelve quart buckets, filled with "nice cool lemonade." It was not a very sumptuous affair in point of a great variety of dishes, such as would characterize a city entertainment of a festive character; but considering we are in the field, far away from large markets, large grocery establishments and the like, with no or few facilities for obtaining anything outside of army rations, the repast was no mean affair. At any rate, the company enjoyed it, and the occasion was one of much pleasure and jollification. The collation was gotten up by Major Reynolds as expressing in a slight manner his affection for and gratitude to the company, and in consideration of his leaving them as their commanding officer. We venture to say that every member of Major Reynolds' late command would like, individually, to testify to the brave, faithful and energetic manner in which he has discharged his official duties, with what gallantry he has led them in every, engagement, how he has shared with them their toils and privations, and has been with them almost constantly through nearly two years' vicissitudes, marked not altogether by trials but by many happy features. One prominent characteristic of Major Reynolds is a thoroughness and correctness in the performance not only of the outlines of duty but of all the details, and be requires the same from those under his command. A superficial discharge of duties is not enough for him. The best wishes of his late command, for his future success and welfare, will ever attend him.
It is expected and hoped that Lieut. Bower will be assigned to a position in the battery, in which he served so faithfully, and while participating in its first engagement, was the first member of the company to be wounded. We can assure him, that he will receive a welcome from his old comrades, of the most cordial and enthusiastic description. A most just and meritorious appointment is his, bearing the evidence as he does, of having done his country noble service.
Lieut. Anderson, is at present, Acting. Ordnance Officer for the Artillery Brigade of the 1st Corps.
On Monday afternoon, our brigade was reviewed by Lord Abinger, a Lieutenant Colonel of the Scotch Fusileer Guards, in the English Army. A jolly, portly looking man, thoroughly Englishfied in appearance. He wore a black fatigue coat ornamented with a number of ribbons, a white sash apparently of a very delicate texture, and a Scotch plaid dap. What his impressions were of the five batteries, we do not know, but if he has any doubts about their practical workings, we would respectfully suggest in case the British Lion insists on hostilities with the American Eagle, that the noble lord pit five English batteries against them.
We have a large fine drill ground near our camp, and we have begun to make use of it in the execution of artillery manouvres at an early hour every morning.
No signs of another campaign. We have heard it remarked that possibly we may remain here all summer. What do our readers say to that? We wrote some time since about short, quick and decisive work being done this spring. Well, it has been accomplished, but lo, how different the result from what was expected! Perhaps we foolishly built our hopes on a sandy foundation. Certain it is, we shall make no more predictions.
Heavy seige guns, one hundred pounder Parrots, are being mounted in the heights of Falmouth. That looks like taking Fredericksburg by seige.
The weather is very warm.

From Reynold's Battery—letter from Lieut. Wilber.
In the field near Gettysburg, Pa.,
Thursday, July 2, 1863.
We had a hard fight yesterday. The first part of the 11th Corps was engaged. All o f the afternoon we had to change our position , and about 4 p.m. I was ordered to the front and right to assist our infantry, as the rebels had a much larger force than ours and were driving us back. They drove us back through the town and now hold it. After going up to assist the infantry, I fired a few rounds and then fell back about thirty rods and commenced firing again, and then when our infantry had got back to me I moved back again, having to go some sixty rods before I could get a position to fire from. I then kept firing until all of the infantry had got back from the position that I was in. Then I received orders to move back and save my pieces, if I could. I had got back on the road leading into the town when a lot of rebel infantry came up on my right and shot one of my wheel horses on the piece that was in the rear. I got the horse clear of the piece, and I had got the piece started, when they fired a volley into me, killing the rest of the horses on the piece and shooting the horse from under me. Then I gave the order for the remaining men to save themselves if they could. I then caught up to my other piece and saved it. I had one man killed and eight wounded in my section. We then retreated through the town and took a position just outside of it, and held the position. I was very slightly wounded in the left knee with a piece of shell, had a musket ball pass through my whiskers, and another through my coat.
July 5.—Our captain was wounded in the face and side—not, dangerously. We had one man killed and thirteen wounded that day.
Thursday reinforcements came up, and at 3 p. m. the rebels attacked us. The fight lasted five and a half hours, but our army held their position, repulsing the rebels at every place.
I was hit in the thigh with a piece of shell, giving me a bad bruise; but I did not leave the battery.
On Friday the battle opened at 4 a. m. on our right, with musketry and artillery. We silenced the artillery; the musketry lasted six hours and a half, and was the hardest I ever heard. In the afternoon the fight opened with artillery and there was the most terrific cannonading that I ever heard, and General Hunt, Chief of Artillery, says that it was the heaviest that was ever known in this war. The rebels charged on our batteries with three lines of men. — The first line was all cut to pieces; the second badly cut, and the third the same. Then our infantry charged on them, capturing a large number of prisoners. We had only one or two men slightly wounded. We lost in the three days fight twenty-two horses.
B. N. W.

NEAR MIDDLETOWN, Md, July 9. I wrote to you last Sunday, giving you a short account of the three days' fight at Gettysburg, Pa. Monday morning we marched back to Emmetsburg, Md.; Tuesday we marched to within six miles of Middletown, crossing that day a very high mountain and over a very rough road. Yesterday we marched to where we are now, which is on the top of South Mountain, where the fight was last fall. Our marches since we left Gettysburg, have been very hard, as it has rained most of the time since the fight.
The 8th Cavalry were engaged yesterday in our front, and lost heavily, I understand. I have not seen any of them to find out if any from our place were killed or wounded. The Colonel of our regiment says that was no disgrace in losing a gun, as I lost mine. We expected a fight near here to-day, but it is now reported that a large part of their force had got back into Virginia.
I suppose that the people North will expect that we ought to have captured all of Lee's army, but they do not know what we have to contend against. If we had had to attack the enemy at Gettysburg, we could not have whipped them, as they had a much larger force than we had. The reports in the papers are very much exaggerated about the rout and number of prisoners that we have taken from Lee's army. I think that there is no doubt but that we have taken near 8,000 prisoners. Some of the papers have it as high as 15,000; but it is not so.

It was known that Battery L of the 1st New York Artillery was engaged in the Great Battle, but not until last night did we receive any reliable information as to the part it took. Capt. Gilbert H. Reynolds arrived here wounded, and gives us interesting information. His Battery was at Gettysburg when the rebels attacked and took the place. It retired with the rest of the army, and continued in the fight that followed not far distant to the end. Capt. Reynolds was wounded by a shell, a piece of which struck the top of his nose and destroyed his left eye as it glanced away. He was also struck in the side by a fragment, but there he was only bruised. He with others wounded were put into buildings at Gettysburg, and when the rebels took the town they were nominally prisoners. Subsequently the rebels retreated and they fell into the Union lines. They were not paroled. The Battery went under command of Lieut. Breck as soon as Capt. Reynolds was wounded, and it was not captured as stated by the Democrat. Only the few wounded men were left at Gettysburg as stated above.
Capt. Reynolds saw Lieut. Breck on Saturday after the battle and received a favorable report of his command after he left them. The officers and men stood up bravely to the work and repelled some terrible assaults of the rebels. Battery L was one of five in a brigade upon which the rebels made repeated charges. In one instance they came so near as to spike a gun in a Pennsylvania battery. One of the gunners killed a rebel with a rammer and another used the bayonet with like result. Reynolds Battery lost 18 horses in this battle, an indication of the nature of the work.
The following is the list of casualties so far as Capt. R. could learn them:
Capt. Reynolds, wounded in left eye, and side slightly; Edward Costello, killed; Johd Volen, Oswego, shot in heel: John P. Conn, badly in head; Amos Gibbs, through the wrist. Cramble, (detailed from a Pennsylvania regiment,) in side; Edward Foster, Rochester, slightly; Sergeant Chas. A. Rooney, of Rochester, and Patrick Gray, of Oswego, missing.
Lieut. Wilber had a horse shot under him but was not injured.
Major Reynolds is reported safe.

List of Casualties in Reynolds' Battery
July 5, 1863.
DEAR UNION :— I have time to write but a few lines, scarcely more than to furnish a list of casualties in our battery in the battle of Gettysburg. In the absence of Capt. Reynolds, who was wounded in the first day's fight, the command of the company devolves upon your correspondent, and he has a multiplicity of matters to attend to, occupying for the present almost his entire attention. We are active participants in the late great conflict, from its commencement to its close, and we never witnessed or experienced such severe fighting. It was terrible, and the wonder is that we escaped as we did. We suffered badly the first day's engagement, losing one piece with all the horses and every thing complete, and with a loss of several wounded. Lieut. Wilber had command of the section containing the piece in another part of the field away from the rest of the battery, and was in the act of falling back with our forces when the rebels suddenly opened a terrific fire on his right, killing all the six horses attached to the gun and shooting the one under Lieut. W. It was impossible to save the piece. The enemy was almost within bayonet thrust. Wednesday's battle was against us. We were driven back through Gettysburg to Cemetery Heights, and matters went badly nearly all day. Perhaps the death of Major General Reynolds, so early in the engagement, was one result of it. Everything seemed— so at least to your correspondent— to be in a greatly contused condition. There were conflicting orders and there was wanted a head. The rebels outnumbered us three to one. But time will not permit me, as before remarked, to enter into details. The following is a list of our casualties:
Capt. G. H. Reynolds, wounded in left eye and bruised in left side. Taken to hospital in town, taken prisoner and found in Gettysburg on the rebels evacuating it. Sent to hospital in Baltimore. Doing well.
Edward Costello, killed.
Michael Elringer, wounded slightly in head. Doing well.
John Vallier, wounded in right foot and missing.
Patrick Gray, wounded in back by piece of rail, a shell striking it, is missing.
Edward Foster, wounded in left loot. In hospital.
George Morris, wounded slightly in side. In hospital at Gettysburg.
John P. Conn, wounded in scalp, and left arm and leg paralyzed. In hospital in Gettysburg.
George Gavitt, wounded in face and leg and missing.
William Cronoble, wounded in right shoulder. In hospital.
John Cronshaw, wounded in neck. In hospital.
Sergeant Charles A. Rooney, slightly wounded and missing.
Amos Gibbs, wounded in left wrist. In hospital.
Victor Gretter, slightly wounded in leg, but able to do duty.
William Wood, slightly wounded in ankle. In hospital.
Corporal George Blake, slightly wounded in right side, but able to remain in battery.
Most of the above were taken prisoners in Gettysburg and found there on our reoccupying the town. Isaac Weinberg was captured while attending to Capt. Reynolds, but is now safe and sound with the company.
We took position Wednesday evening on the right slope of Cemetery Heights, and remained there till yesterday morning, fighting Thursday and Friday, hotly and closely engaged with the artillery and infantry, encircled almost with a terrific fire, charged upon, when a battery upon our immediate left had one gun spiked, by a rebel, who boldly rushed up and spiked it: lost twenty-two horses killed and wounded, had a gun disabled, but considering the fire to which we were exposed, we came off almost miraculously. Thursday afternoon and evening we fought for four continuous hours without cessation. Friday's battle was terribly severe and grand beyond description. Most desperate were the charges made by the enemy to break and turn our right and left flanks, but they were most handsomely repulsed, though with an immense slaughter on both sides.
We were relieved from duty yesterday morning, and are now encamped about two miles from the front. We are expecting, however, orders, to move, at any moment. There they come now.
Major Reynolds returned Thursday night. He was seven days trying to find the battery.
G. B.

From Reynolds' Battery.
July 11, 1863.
DEAR UNION—I will improve the present leisure moments in writing you a few lines. We are in position along the outskirts of a wood, on a range of hills on the extreme right of the army, or rather, on the right in rear of one line of the army, for in front of us, about three-quarters of of a mile distant, is another range of hills on which our troops are posted. On our immediate right the hill descends to the creek mentioned in the caption of my letter, in the vicinity of which are a few scattering houses constituting a village. Further to our right lies South Mountain, stretching far off to the north. Beautiful farms, with fields of ripe grain, some of it cut and shocked, lie all about us. Here we are in battle array, with rifle pits, intrenchments and rail barricades thrown up in our front, ready to receive the enemy, whenever he chooses to attack us. We are of the opinion, however, that Gen. Lee has had enough of attacking the army of the Potomac in a strong fortified position, and that he will not molest it again while acting on the defensive, especially under present circumstances, for Gen. Meade has made such a disposition of his forces on the high hills around here, that it would be certain destruction for Lee to fight him, though the rebel General were greatly superior in numbers. But everything indicates as if Meade was expecting an attack.
We took position here yesterday, marching from the west slope of South Mountain, where we lay encamped two nights and a day. On arriving here, a cavalry force was skirmishing with the enemy a mile or two to the front, and there was quite a brisk cannonade. The rebels were supposed to be in large force, and it was rumored they had been reinforced from Culpepper. There have been no demonstrations to-day, with the the exception of a few reports in the direction of Williamsport, which lies about eight miles from here. The right wing of the rebel army rests there, and their left is at Funkstown, or was, for I have just heard they had evacuated that place. But why mention these matters, when you doubtless have a knowledge of them already!
We began our pursuit of the rebels Monday afternoon , the 6th inst. Arrived as far as Cemetery Hill, where the most terrific struggle of the three day's battle occurred, in which Lee seemed to stake everything in the attempt to break our lines, but most disastrously failed— went into park and remained till the next morning. What a sight was presented here! This beautiful cemetery was completely devastated. Monuments were broken to pieces, marble slabs were torn down, iron fences surrounding beautifully arranged lots, containing the remains of the dead were almost destroyed, graves were almost destroyed, graves were trampled upon and many of them showed deep furrows where cannon balls had plowed up the earth, carcasses of dead horses lay scattered about; here and there were soldier's tents, and then at the foot of one side of the hill where the fierce and deadly onset of the enemy was made, there lay a multitude of wounded confederate soldiers, who had been gathered in from the fatal battle field, and were waiting to be carried away in ambulances. The sufferings of most of them were intense, and their groans were heartrending. A number of their comrades was dying, and not far away were being deposited in the "cold earth" without coffins, their remains simply wrapped up in blankets, several of these poor men, who had paid the penalty of fighting against their country, with death. One poor fellow was in a delirium, and crying for his mother. Another was begging for mercy and deliverance from on high. Others were sad and silent, their looks expressive of their distressful situation. And again, there was a wounded sergeant who did not seem to mind his wounds, but was laughing and talking with our own soldiers, discussing the merits of the two armies, arguing the justness of the southern cause, &c. I conversed with a number, two or three of them officers, and found them men of interest and intelligence. One, a lieutenant, a very pleasant and intelligent man, said that one of the divisions which made the charge on the left, was almost annihilated. It numbered some 8,000 men. Mention was made of the death of Barksdale, and of his having been one of the instigators of the rebellion. Yes, remarked the rebel Lieutenant, it is to be deplored that the war was ever commenced by either Northern or Southern incentives. The remark was hitting the nail on the head, we thought. These wounded rebel officers and soldiers expressed a. wish that the war was ended, but they appeared to manifest no disposition to yield first, notwithstanding they were experiencing in their minds and persons all the horrors of war. However bad the rebel cause may be, and however just the war is as waged against it, the soldiers engaged in it have won the respect and admiration of their adversaries, the Federal troops, for their undaunted bravery and fortitude. They are not a whit inferior in valor and soldier-like qualities to our own troops. Both sides are equally matched in that respect.
The battles of Gettysburg, as remarked in a previous letter, were terribly destructive to life. The losses in both armies will figure up in killed, wounded and prisoners, not less than 45,000. It may not generally be known that Wednesday's fight was attended with a capture of 5,000 Federal officers and soldiers from the 1st and 11th corps, who were sent to Richmond. Such is the case, however. One hundred and twenty odd officers were taken prisoners! The 1st corps found itself in a "hornet's nest" that day, and it was most fortunate the rebels halted at Gettysburg after getting possession of the place instead of following up what proved transient success in the end. Had they pushed on with their overwhelming numbers, we fear the nation would not have had occasion to rejoice over such a splendid victory as resulted to our arms, under the blessing of God on the 3rd day of July.
On Monday we marched to within a short distance of Emmettsburg and took position on a rise of ground fronting Cotoctin Mountains. The next morning we resumed our march, and that day and night witnessed the longest and the hardest, roughest, severest march we ever performed as a battery. It rained all day, and though part of the route was over a fine turnpike, the rest of it was over a road of rocks and through depths of mud, and the last four miles was up the highest peak of the Catoctin Mountain, the summit of which we did not reach till after dark. It was densely wooded, and the darkness became Egyptian like. We had to feel our way. We turned into a small rocky field on the mountain about 10 o'clock, and there encamped for the night, the rain coming down in perfect torrents and officers and men were wet through. We had marched about thirty miles that day and were completely tuckered out. Three hours after bivouacking, however, we were ordered to be ready to move out again at 3 o'clock in the morning. At the time we were in readiness to go and moved to Middleton that forenoon.
Sunday, July 12.—We are still in the same position, but are under orders to be ready to move. What the enemy is about I do not know. Report says he is fortifying on the old Antietam ground. Don't credit the stories about the demoralization or disorganization of Lee's army. It is all fol-de-rol, and such reports do great harm. Expectations and hopes are raised in minds of the people at home which are likely to result in unhappy disappointment. The Federal army won a great victory at Gettysburg, but Lee's army is not destroyed. Far from it. There is more fighting to be done, lots of it, and thousands of more troops are needed.
Most of the wounded men in our battery are in Germantown hospital, and doing well.
Major Reynolds has been assigned to a command in the Reserve Artillery. We regret to part with him.

From Reynold's Battery.
Eds. UNION:—My last letter was written when we were in position near Beaver Creek Maryland, not far from Funkstown. Since then we have made a number of marches, short and long, pleasant and severe ones; have traversed over old and new grounds: have pressed hard and close after the enemy but been in no engagements; have crossed to the south side of the Potomac for the third time and again "invaded" the sacred soil of Virginia, and to-day finds us at the well known locality of Warrenton Junction, encamped near the railroad, over which the cars, loaded with supplies for man and beast, are running almost constantly. On leaving Funkstown, where we were in position for two days, we moved to Williamsport, passing by some very formidable earthworks and intrenchments the rebels had thrown up to resist any advance our army might make, and a sorry plight, indeed, our troops would have found themselves in had they rushed on pell mell regardless of consequences. The enemy escaped, as is well known, but by no fault of General Meade's.
From Williamsport we went to Crampon's Gap, passing through Smoketown, Kedysville and near the old battle field of Antietam. Things looked natural in this section of the country, and traces of the memorable Antietam engagement were visible, very sadly so, in the graves of many of the brave men who were sacrificed in that desperate conflict, and whose remains are now resting in a pretty lot near Smoketown. On Saturday, July 18, we crossed the Potomac at Berlin, at the same place we crossed last fall under M'Clellan, marching to Waterford, a real Union village, greatly in contrast with the town of Middlebury, to which place we moved the following Monday, from Hamilton, arriving there about dusk and receiving a very dusky, gloomy reception. Not a house open, windows closed tight, and everything and everybody savoring strongly of secesh. A party of guerillas captured Gen. Newton's Chief of Staff and an aid at Middlebury, who crossed Goose creek but a little ways in advance of the army, and very suddenly found themselves in rebel company while quietly enjoying a respectable dinner at a house just this side of the Creek. They were marched through the town, very much no doubt to the entertainment of the inhabitants, and from last accounts were "onward to Richmond." This was a very cool capture, for the two Staffs were not more than half a mile in front of our advance guard.
The 23d of July found us in Warrenton, making the fourth time we have visited that place during the war. Poor Warrenton! Once, one o f the prettiest and most attractive towns in Virginia, marked by the wealth, intelligence and refinement of its people, and by the blessings of peace. Now its beauty is despoiled, its male citizens, with few exceptions, are or were in the Confederate army, for very many of them have been killed fighting for the rebel cause; and indeed there is scarcely a house that does not mourn the loss of a husband, father, or brother. Nearly every lady is dressed in mourning, and probably no village or town in Virginia has suffered more in the depletion of its population and the waste and desolation of property and homes by the rebellion, than Warrenton. It has been occupied, ever since the war began, first by one army and then by the other, neither trying to hold possession of it, but evacuating it as one or the other army approached it in any force. It is sort of a half-way station for the Federal, and Rebel troops as they come and go north or south. We went into position at W., our guns pointing towards Sulphur. Springs, but we saw no signs of the enemy.
Saturday morning we took up our line of march for this place. We do not anticipate remaining here long. We are replenished with several days' supply of grain, and are expecting a supply of clothing for the men. Boots and shoes are in urgent demand, the long and hard marches of the summer's campaign having told severely on shoe leather. We have replaced the lost gun with a new one, and as soon as our draft of horses is honored, we shall be all ready to begin another campaign, or renew the recent one. Two of the batteries in our brigade, Capt. Cooper's and Lieut. Stewart's, are at Rappahannock Crossing and Bealton with part of the 1st corps. Gen. Buford's cavalry are at the former place, and pontoon bridges are expected to be thrown across the river to-night. We imagine this will not be accomplished however, without a sharp fight.
Private John Conn, who was wounded at Gettysburg has since died from his wounds, and his remains are now resting in a graveyard at Gettysburg. He was one of the first to join the battery, and we can never forget the generous qualities of his heart, his intelligence and companionableness of character. He was wounded in the faithful and gallant discharge of a soldier's duty. We miss him much from our midst. He was a compositor in the office of the Rochester Democrat, and an occasional correspondent of that paper, his letters possessing interest and considerable originality. The friends and relatives of the deceased have the sympathies of the officers and members of Battery " L" in this their loss and our loss.
The want of time forbids me writing more, and so with this brief letter I must close.

From Reynolds' Battery DEMOCRAT & AMERICAN
SOUTH MOUNTAIN, Md., July 9, 1863.
A few minutes from the press of duty I once more turn my attention toward the polar star of my earthly affections. Not that during the whirl and excitement of battle, when grim death was reaping more than a bountiful harvest, the dear ones were absent from my mind. More than once, amid the thundering roar of the awful conflict, when the missiles of death were falling thick and fast, moving to my duty among the dead men and horses, my thoughts would take to themselves the wings of telegraphic speed, and dwell with loved ones far away. But I have no time for silvery words. I can only tell events as they transpired in quick succession; have hardly time for that. I am sitting on the very spot where, a little over one year ago, events were transpiring that will render this place memorable in history. We reached the summit last night which has cost us two days of as hard marching as we have ever done. As we moved in here last night, cannonading was heard but a little distance in our front, and troops were moving out to take position, for to-day we all expected would be a battle day. Thus far all is quiet in our front, but around us is hurry enough- troops were moving fast, and if the rebels are in front, we shall hear of it before long; a few miles will bring us to the battle ground of Antietam. I will stop here till events develop, and return to Emmittsburg on our advance. We marched out of that place one week ago yesterday, northward to Gettysburg, Pa., a distance of ten miles. We reached that place, I think, about ten o'clock A. M. Some half an hour before reaching there heavy firing was heard to the left of the town, and curling smoke told the very spot from whence it proceeded, and the practiced eye could tell at once that it was a strong one. But there was no time for calculations; we soon filed out of the road and took our course across the fields, reached a ridge of land intervening between the town and the enemy's position, and in less time than I am telling you, were in the hottest engagement, by far, I ever witnessed. We drove them from their position in our immediate front, and the fight waxed fierce to our right. Here we were ordered with our battery. As we moved, the enemy poured upon us a terrible fire of shot and shell, that ploughed the earth and filled the air, till one would think that shrinking demons and flying, hissing serpents inhabited it, and on either side were evidences that fearful work had been done. Dead and wounded men and horses, broken fragments of limbs, small arms, &c., lay strewn in abundance. But we were on the battle-field, and under orders, and steadily, in the face of the raging storm, did we move to execute the order. Here our Captain was wounded, and I took him from the field. The 1st army corps was alone in the fight, and it was soon evident that we were contending with the principal part of the rebel army. Major General Reynolds, our corps commander, was killed—a very serious loss to us. We were obliged to retire before the horde that pressed us; but it was slowly, and in the best of order; no panic, no flight. We were obliged to give up the town, into which many of our wounded had been carried. These the rebels held while in possession of the town. In this day's fight we lost one of our guns, which our men were bringing manfully from the field, when every horse was shot dead, and we were obliged to abandon it, being pressed by the foe from three sides. We retired to the cemetery, the resting place of the holy dead. Here, amid tombstones and monuments, amid years of gathered beauty, amid graves blooming with fresh flowers, and strewn with keepsakes and toys of the departed, here on this elevated spot, covering and overlooking the country for miles, we took opposition for the defense of the noble old flag. Not one inch did we retire beyond it. The 11th corps came up and joined their strength to us. Night was fast coming on. It was evident neither party was sorry to have the darkness and stillness of night succeed the carnage of the day. Thus ended the first day's fighting, but not our work; we were fatigued, worn out, and would have gladly welcomed rest and sleep. We had somewhat exhausted our ammunition, and it must of necessity be replenished. This, as is always the case, fell to my lot. I worked hard nearly all night, but considered myself ready for duty as the morning broke. This, the 2d day of July, was to be a great day for the American Union. All was quiet, save the usual amount of picket firing and an occasional shot from the artillery, till afternoon, when the battle opened in fury all along the line. But the 1st corps was not alone—the great Army of the Potomac was here. It was evident that Lee's army, with all its strength and prowess, was here also. Now was to be decided, in open field conflict, in fair, honest fighting, which was the superior—the Union or the Rebel army. Nobly, bravely and desperately did each contend for the palm. They in vain threw their veterans against our left, until, shattered, torn and dispirited, they were driven back to their own lines. Then they tried the mettle of which our right wing was composed, but here, too, they found the true steel. Charge after charge did they hurl against the tried and true old corps, till a rampart of dead bodies was almost formed in front. Our infantry lay in a piece of woods, and not a tree stood in their front but showed the marks of many bullets. They charged our battery, but we rained canister in their pathway, and they recoiled before us. This was just as darkness was gathering over us, and we could not tell the effect of our work; but as morning broke, the gray-coated dead lay cold on the sod that spread in our front.
Night has dropped the curtain—darkness like a funeral pall obscures the scene. It is fit that nature at this moment should put on its robe of mourning. Night, as is always the case, brings a lull in the fight, but labor does not cease—damages must be repaired, ammunition replenished, everything put in order for the emergencies of the coming day. The wounded, so far as possible, are to be removed; the silent dead will do no harm. I start with my caissons for the ammunition train. The ambulances are put in motion and soon flying in every direction. I pass on to execute my order so tired and sleepy that I can hardly keep my position on my horse. I pass hospitals in my course filled with broken and shattered humanity. The moans of the poor fellows are enough to pierce a heart of steel. At one place the houses, barns and sheds are literally filled with wounded loved ones. You would think as you gazed on this scene of misery, it were sufficient for the whole world, but it is the receptacle of only one corps. I press on as best I can. The road is crowded. As I pass one ambulance I hear a pitious moan, from another, as it jolts over the stones, comes a piercing shriek, and yet from another, a prayer to God for a cup of cold water and the grave. I have told you of thundering artillery, the deafening roar of musketry and the splendid bravery exhibited as line after line, as far the eye can reach, moves out in cool and steady order to the desperate work. But this is drawing the curtain, showing war stripped of pomp. Go one mile to the rear of a battle-field and you will always know what war means.
Morning again finds us at our post ready for duty as it comes. An effort is still made to drive our right wing, all in vain, they push against a wall of stone. All becomes quiet again; still as though no work of death was going on around us until 2 o'clock P. M. This is the last day's battle of Gettysburg; we know it not—our enemy probably do. The last great Herculean effort is to be made on our centre, all their strength is concentrated there. The hour has arrived, an hour of awful interest and importance to the American Union; one in which undoubtedly is to be decided the destiny of the nation. A large and powerful army, in the hands of one of the most skillful warriors of the age is within a few miles of the Capital, our lines are in such a shape that our centre once broken our army is gone--the Capital falls—the rich and opulent cities, the virtuous and quiet homes of the North are open to the ruthless avarice of more than a ruthless soldiery. The awful consequences of this hour's work sinks deep into each one's heart, and inspires him with more than manly bravery.
But I am digressing. Look across the plain— a puff of white smoke ascends; you hear the thunder; it is the signal; the moment has arrived. The next two are awful hours. The heavens are convulsed; the air shrieks, hisses and quivers about your ears; the earth trembles beneath your feet. It is said that 150 pieces of artillery opened on our centre, and they were answered by as many more, each sending forth a messenger on the awful errand of death.— Our infantry lay in front of us and we fire over them. Now is seen one of the grandest sights to a military eye. The enemy are advancing across the plain in the line of battle, half a mile or more in length. On they come amid the deafening roar. Artillery answers artillery, till the lines of fated men reach a certain point, when ours is turned upon them. Nothing daunted, they press steadily on through the iron hail. The first line is literally demolished; the second shares its fate, or nearly so, the third is badly cut up by our infantry and large numbers captured. I could but feel sad to see these shattered and demoralized men turn their faces toward their own lines.
You may think this strange talk, but a thinking man can but have sadness mixed with his joy on such an occasion. Gettysburg battle is evidently ended. We have seen too much of this work not to know the enemy have been too thoroughly beaten to try us again. I have given you as good a description of this great battle as time and circumstances would allow. Remember we have hardly halted for an hour since we came into Maryland, and then every one was glad to cast himself on the ground for sleep and r e s t . You will hardly believe me, but a soldier can lay down on the field of battle after his day of bloody work is done, surrounded with the frightful images of war, regardless of the destinies of the morrow, and sleep as sweetly as a babe on its mothers breast. I must hasten; time is flying, and you anxious to receive this.

Letter from Reynold's Battery.
Hd'qrs Battery "L," 1st N.Y. Artillery
Aug. 13th, 1863
Battery "L" has left the "war path," so to speak, and we are now enjoying ourselves in an oak wood, near the Rappahannock river. Everything is quiet, and we flatter ourselves that we are to remain so for some time to come. Some pretend to imagine that we are to remain inactive till we are reinforced by the conscripts now enjoying civil life in the north. Quite a number of these conscripts, or rather substitutes for conscripts, arrived here the other day from Philadelphia. They were attached to the 90th Pa. Vol. One of these substitutes, who had received several hundred dollars for venturing into the field, was unfortunate enough to come in contact with the 4th Md Vols., who pronounced him a deserter from their regiment and immediately arrested him as such, and he is now under guard waiting his trial. My advice would be, if a deserter intends to come again as a soldier, to enlist and receive the big bounties rather than come as a substitute, for it has been clearly illustrated that it is dangerous; for it may be impossible to tell what regiment you may be connected with; this advise is gratis. Rochester papers are much sought after to-day, as they contain a list of conscripts from Monroe county,— nearly every one of us have relatives and friends among them, but all feel perfectly satisfied with the choice of the "Blind Poet," and are not disposed to find as much fault with the quality as the quantity; we only wish that the amount was doubled. Our greatest fear is that the conscripts will come to time with $300, rather than risk their lives in Dixie. We had much rather see them just now. Paymasters are busy paying off the army, and we daily expect to see Maj. Porter, our Paymaster, on hand with our payrolls and a good supply of greenbacks. Our greatest trouble is water, but we expect plenty of that article soon, as the "boys" are busy digging a well near by. We expect to get plenty of good water at the depth of twenty feet.
Of late we have been having very warm weather, and both man and beast have suffered a good deal from the effects of the heat during the recent marches. Last night we had a terrific thunder storm, which lasted from midnight until sunrise; the thunder was sharp and loud, and at times, the water fell in such sheets that it seemed as if our frail houses would be washed away by the flood. The Rappahannock is very high in consequence of last night's rain; but the pontoon bridges remain firm. There is an abundance of tree-toads in the woods around our camp, and as it has been cloudy all day, we have been well supplied with music. The health of the Battery is good, and when compared with the health of the Battery a year ago, it is very good. The 6th Company of Sharpshooters (formerly Gray's) are near us, on the opposite side of the Rappahannock. The Railroad Bridge at this place, which was destroyed by our forces last year, has been rebuilt, and ready for use, but as the enemy occupy a hill a few miles from the bridge, it is of very little use at present. We have but five guns in the Battery, but expect every day to receive the sixth one in place of the one lost at Gettysburg, July 1st. It is the general opinion among the soldiers that we are to finish this job that we have on hand before the coming winter; but, alas! we thought, or imagined we thought, the same thing a year ago, but as we are serving the shortest half of our time, we can look forward to the expiration of our time, if not to the end of the war. We have just heard that the 5th Corps are on their way to Washington, and we imagine that there is a move on foot.
W. E.

From the Army of the Potomac - A Soldier's Views or Policy—Incidents and Movements-—Reynolds' Battery.
August 14th, 1863.
My last was written when we were in position on the south side of the Rappahannock. On Saturday evening last we were relieved from duty, recrossed the river, and are now camped in the edge of a woods not far from the banks of the river. Our forces occupy about the same position across the river that they did a week ago. No advance has been made by either army, to my knowledge. I suppose that it is not contraband to say that our lines extend from Warrenton Springs to Falmouth. The enemy is in his old position on Fredericksburg heights with one division of troops, and it is pretty well authenticated that Lee has massed the main portion of his army on the other side of the Rapidan. There are no indications of a general movement at present. In fact, matters indicate inactivity the remainder of the summer and perhaps far into September. Both Meade's and Lee's armies seem to have settled down for a season of rest. Neither, it may be, is in fit condition to attack the other. Each is able to stand on the defensive. Both, doubtless, are waiting for the same thing, namely, conscripts. Both need reinforcements to be able to assume the aggressive, and the army that obtains them first and in the greatest numbers will probably be the first to begin active and offensive operations. Which army shall it be ? Oh, that Gen. Meade had a hundred thousand more men to-day! We do not believe his army would be lying still if he had. There would be a pushing forward of his columns and more victories for him to win.
Men, men are what are wanted—& strengthening of our armies, numerically, and with this additional strength to move and operate with now. Now, when the Southern army is so weak and contains apparently, if not in reality, the seeds of dissolution, and when a merciless conscription is resorted to to fill up its decimated, exhausted ranks-would not the rebel armies be broken up and dispersed? And, then, if at the same time this work was being performed, advantage should be taken by the "authorities" of the unquestioned discontent and disaffection, which exists in some of the seceded States, by the adoption and application of a conciliatory policy towards the southern people—a policy which would divide and alienate the people from their traitorous leaders, instead of uniting and exasperating them,—how long would it be before we should again be enjoying the peace and blessings of a restored Union? Does the word conciliation frighten any of my readers, or excite symptoms of indignation, or taint of " Copperheadism?" No restoration of the Union without it, mark that, and that's what we are contending for as soldiers, the preservation and maintainance of the unity and perpetuity of the American Republic. Nothing less, nothing more. Whatever other beneficient results may accrue in the accomplishment of such a noble work. Fighting and beating the rebel armies alone will never accomplish the work so long as the masses of the southern people remain organized in their opposition or resistance to the Federal Government. They must be converted or won over to the Federal cause, and disarmed of their prejudices and erroneous opinions, be made to believe that Government is their friend, the defender and protector of their rights, homes and families. Every manifestation of feeling or sentiment, on the part of the Southern people, to come back into the old Union, must be recognized and strengthened. Has not the ground always been taken by the North, that the rebellion was the work of ambitious and unscrupulous men, who actually deceived the southern people with misrepresentations of what the purpose and object of the North was, and this way "precipitated a revolution?" How undeceive the people by force of arms only? Can there be no liberal, honorable, magnanimous concessions, made by the Federal Government, to bring back a deluded people, who are our own brothers, blood of our blood, and race of our race? Must there be no cessation of " blood-letting," no yielding of anything on our side, until we have thoroughly humbled and subjugated the South? Must there be no "backing down" from a rigid enforcement of the Confiscation and Emancipation Acts? Must there be no discrimination made between the plotters and leaders of rebellion, and those, who by the force of circumstances, were drawn into the waters of secession, or forced against their will, to come out against the Union? But time forbids us to dwell on this matter any longer. We most sincerely trust, that wisdom and sagacity may mark the policy of our rulers, in their dealings with the disaffected States.
We paid a brief visit a day or two since to the headquarters of Major Reynolds, who is now in command of the artillery brigade, 12th corps, having been assigned lately to that corps. We found the Major pleasantly and loftily situated on a range of hills near Kelly's Ford, his batteries in position on this and the other side of the Rappahannock, and camps scattered in every direction. The scenery about this Ford is quite wild and picturesque, the river is very rocky and the water runs and dashes impetuously. We are located three miles above Kelly's and about two miles below Beverly Fords. Here and there a miniature settlement can be seen consisting of two or three rickety houses, their inmates, if they have any, being women and children. The recent orders causing all male inhabitants residing along or near the railroad, between here and Washington, to be arrested and sent to W., whether loyal or disloyal, will certainly clean out in this section of the country what few remaining male citizens there are, who, it may be, have escaped the clutches of Davis' conscription act. A hot fire those Virginians are between who are loyally disposed. What a longing they must have, it seems to us, for the war to close.
The temperature of the weather for the past week or two has been way up to the highest notch. It has considerably moderated, however, since the heavy rain night before last, The rain fell in torrents, much to our discomfort for the time being, for our cotton domicils were all of a sudden flooded with water.
The " heated term" has produced some sickness in the army, but the troops are remarkably well considering. The Rappahannock presents a lively scene every day about dusk. Officers and men crowd to its banks and plunge into its waters and troops of bathers and swimmers are the visible result. A sad event occurred the other night while a party of Battery B's men were bathing. Two of them were drowned. They got beyond their depth, in a whirlpool, I was told, and disappeared very suddenly, sinking when no one was observing them. The river is quite deep and shallow in some places.
Digging wells has been and is now the employment of many of the soldiers. As I write the men in our company are hard at work just in rear of our camp, picking and shovelling away, trying to strike water. They have dug down about twenty feet, and have a well that would do credit to the most experienced well-diggers. Information comes to me that a "vein of water" has been "struck." Now for an abundance of that blessed beverage, cool and refreshing as you please. We have been obliged to go a mile for the article. All praise to the " boys" for their enterprise, the labor of two days.
SATURDAY MORNING, Aug. 15.—Our dreams of rest and inactivity are likely to be dissipated. Orders have just come to supply the men with three day's rations, and to be ready to move at moment's notice. Rumors are afloat that Lee is moving, but in what direction or for what point I do not know. The cavalry have just passed us on their way to Catlett Station. This is going to the rear. A report is in circulation that communication between here and Washington is cut off. The company state their readiness to move, but they would like to take their twenty-two feet deep well with them.
G. B.

From Reynolds' Battery.
Aug. 24,1863.
You perceive, from the caption of my letter, that we still remain in statu quo. The orders to be in readiness to move at a moment's notice have not been followed by any movement of a general character, though on Wednesday last, about twilight, there was considerable motion in the 1st Corps, occasioned by the report that the enemy was coming in three heavy columns from Culpepper, and an immediate attack was anticipated. We were ordered to harness and hitch up forthwith, take our battery across the river and go in position at the front, half a mile in advance of our old position. Away we went, part way on a trot, and a little while found us, with our six guns unlimbered and ready for action. A small regiment of infantry was the only support we had. Another battery of six pieces was in our rear. We concluded that the rebels couldn't be in very close proximity to us, or in very large numbers, otherwise we would be supported by a heavier force. Our conclusions proved correct, for we had not been in position more than ten minutes when we received orders to limber up, go back to camp and un-harness. The whole affair was a hoax. One of our cavalry videttes saw the rebel cavalry coming up in three columns, and he immediately conceived the notion that the whole of Lee's army was advancing, and so without waiting to satisfy himself positively about the matter, he gallops off to convey, or have conveyed, to corps headquarters the startling intelligence. The corps was soon under arms. The three columns of cavalry, however, turned out to be rebel pickets, who were coming to relieve the pickets in their front, and, in coming up, they deployed out as skirmishers. A little "scare," that's all.
It seems to be a question of great doubt whether the enemy is in much force or not at Culpepper or on the Rapidan. We have but few troops now on the south side of the river, they have been mostly withdrawn. There is a perfect quietude of both armies, and that old, oft-repeated, worn out story, "All quiet on the Rappahannock, " was never truer than to-day.
Batches of conscripts arrive almost daily, so I am told, but I have seen none myself. They have to undergo another medical examination here in the army, but for what particular purpose I cannot say. They have been examined once, accepted and mustered into service. Why they should be put into the surgeons' hands again, unless the first examination is regarded dubious, is a matter requiring explanation. Many of the lucky ones or their substitutes have been pronounced totally unfit for service, physically. If they are sent back, or mustered out of service, it may be a money making operation for the substitute, and the law may be so construed to oblige the conscript to furnish another substitute or go himself. Perhaps the cheapest, safest and best way is to do the latter, though fighting by proxy is certainly a matter of no little convenience, to say the least. Give us the men, at any rate, be they conscripts or substitutes.
The weather continues very warm. The troops fully appreciate the rest they are enjoying.
A newsless letter, this, but there is no news. The approaching month will doubtless develop something of interest in the Army of the Potomac.

From Reynolds' Battery.
Sept. 13,1863.
If the Army of the Potomac for a long time past has been an object of little or no interest, on account of its inactivity, it will cease to be so now that it is again in motion, and like our armies in the south and south-west, is advancing on the enemy. At present writing only a part of the army is moving, two divisions of cavalry, the second corps and a portion of the fifth corps, so I have been informed. Buford's cavalry and the second corps crossed the Rappahannock at this point, at an early hour this morning, and soon after crossing, cannonading was heard, which grew less and less distinct, indicating that our forces were pressing forward.— The boom of cannon now reaches our ears, at intervals, the firing being in the direction of Culpepper. It is reported in camp that our cavalry occupy Culpepper, and I shall not be surprised to hear that they have pushed on to the Rapidan. I apprehend our forces will not encounter any serious obstacles or adventures in reaching the Rapidan river, believing that Lee's army is mostly on the other side, and has been considerably reduced by the withdrawal of his troops to other localities. Our own corps is under marching orders, and I presume all the other corps are also. The forces that have crossed the river seem to have gone on a reconnoissance, and if they succeed in establishing a line of defence on the Rapidan we shall probably take up our quarters in that vicinity, very shortly. This movement was entirely unanticipated in the army. It was the general impression that the Army of the Potomac would remain motionless, guarding the north banks of the Rappahannock, resisting any attack Lee might make, and of course covering, and protecting Washington. What advantage is to be gained by extending our lines to the Rapidan, simply, without a further onward movement, with a prospect of taking Richmond, I do not know. It will of course put us further from our base of supplies, and require a larger number of troops to keep open our line of communications. Gen. Meade's army is not any too strong to operate with aggressively. We understand that some of the regiments and batteries which went to New York have rejoined the army, and that the others are about to return. This will augment the army considerably. Large and small squads of conscripts arrive almost daily, and since the execution of the five deserters in the 5th corps few desertions have taken place. The punishment meted to those guilty men has certainly had a very salutary effect. Conscripts or substitutes have been heard to say since that solemn affair, that they didn't think such severe punishment would be visited upon deserters, though it had been threatened. They thought it was more talk than reality, but have found out their mistake and begin to regard desertion from the army as a matter of sure death.
The 1st brigade, 1st division, 1st corps have been making extensive preparations for a flag presentation to take place this week Thursday, the anniversary of Antietam. A large and beautiful evergreen arbor has been erected, where the presentation is to be made. A race track has been laid out, and arrangements have been and are now in progress for one of the grandest affairs of the kind that has ever occurred in this army. The expected movement of the corps, if it takes place previous to Thursday, as it undoubtedly will if there is to be a general movement of the army attending the reconnoissance mentioned above, will of course interfere with the flag presentation. The brigade is composed of Wisconsin troops, and has been associated with the Army of the Potomac since its organization, has grown up with it, and as one of its officers remarked, will probably expire with it. No troops in the field, from Virginia to Louisiana, have done better and nobler service, than these brave men of Wisconsin. Their record is eloquent, of the highest courage the most heroic deeds, the most patriotic devotion. They have been first and foremost in the hottest and most sanguinary conflicts, going in some instances, where other troops who were supporting them, did not dare to go, charging the enemy at the point of the bayonet, up steep banks and rugged hills, in strong entrenchments and formidable rifle pits, routing and discomforting the foe, capturing flags and whole regiments of the rebels. But all this has not been done without a terrible sacrifice of life, as the diminished ranks of the brigade give plain and sad evidence. It originally numbered between four and five thousand men; now it numbers between six and seven hundred, so fearfully have the destructive missiles of war told upon its ranks.
We were favored yesterday afternoon and last night with copious draughts of water, which the dry and cracked earth drank with the avidity of a man suffering with thirst. For weeks not a particle of rain has fallen, and the hot sun had literally baked the earth and desicated the air.
Capt. Reynolds returned on Friday morning, and we are glad indeed to welcome him back, looking so hearty and well.

From Reynolds' Battery
September 29, 1863.
The movements of the Army of the Potomac are just at present wrapped in no little mystery. Whether they are of an advancing or retrograding nature, is a difficult matter for your correspondent to determine. The first corps are moving by slow and easy stages, have moved three times since the date of my last, written near Poney Mountain, on the 20th inst., but we are not very far now from the above mountain. On Thursday last we moved to the position which had been occupied by the 12th corps a little south east of Stevensburg, and near Raccoon Ford. We lay at this point till Sunday afternoon, when we moved about two miles, in a south westerly direction, for a change of camp, and so be nearer Raccoon Ford, as was stated. We marched through a dense woods and over a terribly rough and crooked road, and halted in a field of rocks and stones, surrounded with woods until yesterday morning, when we advanced a mile further south west, and are now encamped near the road running from Culpepper to Raccoon Ford, not far from the latter place, and as the caption of my letter states, near Cedar Mountain, which rises almost directly in front of us. There are camps located at the foot of the Mountain, of the 2d corps, I believe, and one of the reserve batteries is stationed there. Our remembrances of Cedar or Slaughter Mountain as it is sometimes called, are very vivid, for it was here, one year ago the 9th of last month, that we first witnessed the realities of a battle and battle field. A desperate and sanguinary conflict was that, one of the severest of the whole war, attended with a great and mournful loss of life. The enemy was treble our own numbers and vastly superior in point of position, and the wonder is that Gen. Banks' forces were not all annihilated or captured.
Almost fourteen months have elapsed since that bloody and unfortunate struggle, which was quickly followed by Pope's disastrous retreat to Washington, and now after this long interval we are again very nearly in the old position. Will Gen. Meade move forward across the Rapidan, or will he fall back to the north side of the Rappahannock? is a question that puzzles many a thinking soldier in Meade's army. The Army of the Potomac is weaker by two corps than it was one week ago to-day. This fact may not have been developed to the public as yet, but will be in all probability before this reaches you. If it is contraband news of course you will not publish it. The 1lth and 12th corps left for Alexandria on Thursday of last week, and embarked on board of transports or of cars, I don't know which, for conjecture says Tennessee, to reinforce Burnside or Rosecrans, and again conjecture says for North Carolina, and is so extravagant even as to suggest Texas as the place of destination, the policy of scattering the Federal forces as widely as possible being greatly in vogue. A new idea surely, applying to the Army of the Potomac for reinforcements to send to the South or Southwest when said army is in very great need of reinforcements itself. But Burnside or Rosecrans must not be sacrificed no more than Washington must be taken, and so the Army of the Potomac, if it cannot win or be permitted to win offensive battles, can defend itself when attacked as well as defend other armies also.
The taking away of two corps from Meade does not indicate a further advance on his part, unless Lee is very much weakened in front, and we do not believe such is the case, notwithstanding Longstreet is with Bragg. At any rate, the south bank of the Rapidan is strongly fortified, and to reach it by assault would cost an immense sacrifice of life. It is a common remark here in the army that the Army of the Potomac has been transferred into an Army of Observation, and there may be a good deal of truth to it.
The shooting of deserters is of frequent occurrence now. A substitute in the 3d division of our corps was shot last Friday, in the presence of the whole division. The scene was a most solemn and impressive one, the doomed men being conducted to the place of execution by a band of music in front of the column playing a dirge, following which were six soldiers carrying a coffin, a rude pine box, and after them walked the prisoner beside a chaplain, divested of coat and vest, his hands manacled behind him, his eyes cast to the ground, a solemn expression on his face, but indicating no very visible emotions from the terrible fate soon awaiting him. He was of medium height, rather slim, of good figure, and possessing a countenance expressive of intelligence and far from denoting criminality, and yet he must have been a very bad character, for he confessed being a participant in the hanging of Colonel Brien in the New York riot. Following the condemned man were several prisoners, probably conscripts, with their hands chained, and attended by a guard of soldiers. The procession marched along the front of the line of troops with slow step, the band playing all the while, and after reaching the end of the line moved to the spot where the grave was dug, and where the deserter was to suffer the penalty of his disgraceful crime. His coffin was placed on the ground in front of the graves and in front of the prisoner, at ten or twelve paces distant, stood a squad of ten soldiers, the executioners of the deserter. The chaplain kneeled down, the prisoner kneeling beside him, and offered a fervent prayer, and then, arising, conversed with the guilty man, until a signal from a bugle proclaimed that the time had arrived when the recreant soldier must die. His eyes were bandaged with a white handkerchief, he stood in front of his coffin apparently with iron nerve, the soldiers leveled their muskets, there was a click of guns, then a volley, and the unfortunate man fell backward across his coffin, killed instantly, the fatal bullets entering his heart. The price of desertion is certain death now, and the soldier who deserts does so at the peril of his life. Sooner or later he is almost sure to be apprehended. The infliction of the death penalty for the crime of desertion is having a marked and salutary effect on the army. Had it been inflicted at the outset of the war, no doubt our armies would be stronger to-day by tens of thousands.
We are having beautiful weather, bright, warm golden days, but the nights are cold and the dew is heavy. Blankets are indispensable. Since commencing this, the 1st corps have all moved up here, but it is doubtful about their remaining very long in this locality.
Since I last wrote we have been visited by the paymaster, whose visits are much more frequent than they used to be. As a consequence there is a profusion of greenbacks in the army.

From the Army of the Potomac.
October 7, 1863.
On Sunday morning last the quietude of the banks of the Rapidan was suddenly broken by the report of a cannon, and then by another, and another, when, after five or six shots had been fired, the cannonading suddenly ceased and the original quietness was resumed. The firing was not far distant from our camp, being in the direction of Raccoon Ford, and the bursting of the shells could be distinctly heard. We knew they came from the other side of the river, and what did it mean? Had the enemy begun an attack, the sequel of which was to be a grand onslaught on the army of the Potomac, by the combined forces of Gen. Lee. For a little while there was a packing up of things, a blowing of bugles, a beating of drums, and a general hurrying to and fro, every one expecting the receipt of orders to get ready for action. But the booming of cannon suddenly ceased, as I remarked above, and the excitement occasioned by it soon died away. "Nobody hurt." The rebels fired into what they supposed was a wagon train, winding its way along near the river, but which consisted of two wagons only, and which, of course, were not very long in disappearing from sight at the compliments so unexpectedly and gratuitously bestowed upon them by a rebel battery. The cover of one of the wagons was shot away, but no further damage was inflicted except to frighten the drivers. How our side came to ascertain the mistake of the rebels in supposing they were firing into a long train of army wagons, it is not for your correspondent to publicly disclose. The secrets of the enemy have in the same manner been unfolded more than once.
An order was issued a few days since to Volunteer commanders allowing them to fill their commands to the maximum strength, with men from volunteer infantry regiments belonging to the same State to which the batteries belong; these men to be permanently transferred, their consent to the transfer being obtained in all cases. The result of this order has been to fill up the batteries immediately, judging from the effect it has had on our own. Within two or three days after its publication more than fifty names were handed in by infantrymen already attached to the battery, and by those in the infantry service. A brisk and most successful recruiting service has been carried on in the company, without any effort being made comparatively to enlist men. The list of names, fifty or more, has been forwarded to be acted upon, and in a few days we expect to have the full complement of men we first had on the company's organization, and that is required by a six-gun battery. The infantrymen thus transferred do not reenlist, but simply serve out the remainder of their time of enlistment in the artillery instead of the infantry service. This is certainly a great help, or as the boys say, a "big thing" for batteries; but must have a depleting effect to say the least, on infantry organizations. The preference given to the former branch of service by those who have served in both is extensively demonstrated. The 94th N. Y. regiment will be well represented in Battery "L," when the transfer is perfected.
The orders from the War Department relative to recruiting Veteran Volunteers, are quite favorably received among some three years organizations. The large bounty and premium offered, and the permission granted to the companies or regiments, whose term of service expires next spring or summer, to go home this winter to reorganize, recruit, &c., on condition of reenlistment for three years or during the war, are flattering inducements for "Veterans" to continue in the service another three years. The permission for going home, with the prospect of remaining there two, three or more months, is the most attractive part of the orders to very many. I understand that two regiments in the "Iron" or Wisconsin Brigade, have unanimously voted to reenlist upon the terms above mentioned, and it is thought the other regiments in the brigade will do likewise. These do not apply to volunteers, who, at the date of reenlistment have more than one year to serve, neither do they extend longer than 90 days from the 25th of last July. Surely, no government in the world pays his soldiers, so well as does the American Government. God grant that this great and benificent government may escape the direful calamities which threaten to overthrow and ruin it, and retain its unity and integrity, a blessing, as it ever has been since it was founded, to all who live under it and to all the nations of the earth.
The country about here is infested with guerrillas, as it is in many other portions of Virginia. A bugler, belonging to Capt. Cooper's battery in our brigade, was snatched one afternoon last week between camp and a little ways beyond Culpepper by a small guerilla band of two or three, but he managed to effect his escape come night and made his appearance at camp the next morning donned in the uniform of a greyback. The troops have been warned about going far away from their quarters and all passes have to be countersigned by division commanders.
When or where the army will next move is a matter known at headquarters only, if it is there even. It may depend entirely on the movements and operations of Gen. Lee. In the meantime the bright, genial and beautiful days of October are quickly flitting away, and the rains and storms, the cold and mud of a Virginia winter will soon be upon us. Will the army of the Potomac essay another winter's campaign, or will the remembrances of Burnside's memorable wintry march serve as a preventive in the matter of future winter campaigning?
G. B.

From Reynolds' Battery
Camp at Bristoe Station, Va.,
October 28, 1863.
Thinking that the reader of the Democrat would like to know that Reynolds' Battery is still a thing of life, I write this hasty letter. Since leaving Rappahannock Station, some two weeks since, we have been moving, stopping only a day or two in each place. It is unnecessary for me to give a detailed account of the movements of the Army of the Potomac; for I see by the Democrat, which by the way, is a most welcome visitor in our camp, that you are fully posted in our movements. As regards our Battery, we have been doing nothing in the way of fighting in all these moves, but are as usual, ready to go in at a moment's notice, Thoroughfare Gap, we found that the rebels had completely destroyed the railroad track they had torn off the rails and made fires of the ties and heated the rails and bent them in all conceivable shapes, so as to unfit the cuts they had lain rails across each other in alternate piles and then covered them up with dirt and stone; at other places destroying embankments, & c. Notwithstanding all these obstructions, our efficient construction corps are completing from two to three miles a day of the road, and ere long it will be in complete order again to the Rappahannock River. At Thoroughfare Gap our outer pickets had a fight with a force of rebel cavalry, who had surprised a detachment of Kilpatrick's cavalry, who were going on to join the main body, and cut them to pieces, capturing four headquarter wagons, and driving them in confusion into our lines. It being nearly dark the firing them by shelling the passage through the Gap and the sides of the mountain for an hour after dark. In the morning we were marched through the Gap, and at night camped immediately in front of and about one half marching orders, constantly, and are expecting to move any moment; but should anything of interest occur, we will endeavor to keep you posted. Our battery is in its usual fine condition, and all the boys are in the best of spirits and health, we having had very little sickness this summer. We are all feeling jubilant days at the prospect of once more, kind Providence permitting, being among those we love and respect at home, for you will remember we are on the last year of our enlistment. This, to us, is a cheering thought, and there are not a few speculations rife in camp as to what is going to be done, by each one, should God, in his mercy, spare our lives, on his arrival home.
We are having very fine weather at present, but the nights are getting quite frosts.

From Reynolds' Battery— Ready for the Forward March Toward Richmond.
November 2, 1863.
Eight days' rest we have enjoyed here, unmolested, and nobody to make us afraid. Fully recuperated from our recent rearward jaunt, we are all ready for another campaign, though by no means aching for one. Self-indulgence would keep us in our present locality, for it is a pleasant and desirable place, an excellent encampment, and would answer the purpose of winter quarters first rate. Wood, water and good grounds are favored us, and the matter of getting supplies is easy, for the railroad runs right alongside of our camp, and Bristow Station isn't half a mile distant. But I suppose I ought not to mention "winter quarters" at present, when there is a prospect of five, six, and even seven or eight weeks good campaigning weather before the rains, snows, thaws and mud of a Virginia winter shall have made their real appearance. If the first and second days of this month of November, on which we have just entered, be an index of what its remaining days are to be, then the month will be all that Gen. Meade can ask for military movements and operations. A bright genial sun shone all day yesterday, and is shining to-day, and the general exclamation is—; what beautiful weather!
I understand that the railroad to Warrenton Junction is completed, and that it will soon be in working condition to Bealton or the Rappahannock. Trains are running by our camp every few minutes loaded with army supplies, materials for repairing the railroad, and this morning we saw two trains bearing pontoon bridges destined for the Rappahannock, unquestionably.
Fitzpatrick's division of cavalry were en route this forenoon in the direction of the Rappahannock with all their supply wagons, ambulances, & c. There are indications of another movement and before this reaches you we may be in rapid motion again, but this time in motion to the front and not to the rear. There's a report in circulation that the Fredericksburg route is to undergo another trial. May better success attend it than has followed previous attempts to take Richmond by that route.
Lieut. Wm. H. Bower, of our battery, has tendered his resignation and it has been accepted. The loss of his arm incapacitates him for active field service, and he is therefore obliged to retire from it. He does not intend, however, to leave the service altogether, but purposes entering the invalid corps.
Lieut. Bower has been identified with Battery L since its earliest organization. In the first engagement in which the battery participated he was the first member of the company that was wounded, and in consequence of the severity of the wound he was discharged from service. Last June he was commissioned as 2d Lieutenant and assigned to duty in Battery L. His return to the battery was cordially greeted by his old comrades, and now his second departure from them occasions much regret. His ability and industry in the service, qualities brightly displayed in the fiery ordeal of the battle of Gettysburg, have won for him from the Colonel of our regiment praise and commendation, and he has the respect and esteem of all the company. He goes from us attended with the best and heartiest wishes of officers and men.

From the Army of the Potomac— Reynolds' Battery— A False Motion.
November 25, 1863.
We supposed that it was "contraband" to give publicity to any movements or contemplated movements of the Federal army which might be of benefit to the enemy in any way, enabling him, possibly, to checkmate them, or to be fully ready to meet them. You need not be told what the censorship of the press has been in this matter— how some journals have been made to suffer for what was regarded a violation of the prohibitory news measure, and how, on the other hand, for an equal violation, some papers have managed to escape with impunity. The Washington Chronicle of Monday, the 23d inst., took time by the forelock, and proclaimed to both friend and foe (the latter no doubt received a copy of the paper before night) that Gen. Meade's army was under marching orders at daylight that Monday morning, was to leave with ten days' rations in haversacks and wagons, and then mentioned the Ford where the army would probably cross the Rapidan. This was certainly sounding the notes of alarm to Gen. Lee, and bidding him to be prepared to receive his antagonist, Gen. Meade. Now that the army didn't move, and the contemplated movement seems to be abandoned for the present, we will venture to write about it.
The army was under marching orders at daybreak yesterday morning, a day later than stated by the Chronicle; and a grand and vigorous advance across the Rapidan and thence down to Fredericksburg, had been decided upon. The troops were supplied with ten days' rations in haversacks and wagons, and at the appointed hour all were in readiness to move. Toward evening on Monday the sky clouded up, and all that night it rained, a drizzling rain, and yesterday morning at the time for starting it was raining still. But what of the rain! No postponement on account of the weather, surely. Not so surely, either, for just as we were about to harness and hitch our horses and were expecting orders how to move out, an orderly came riding up with instructions rescinding the orders to move for the present. They were received with a general shout from the company, and immediately there was a general unpacking of things and repitching of tents. "I told you we wouldn't move," remarked Lieut. A., "I knew this rain would upset the affair." And sure enough, my "chum" proved to be a true prophet. We were informed shortly afterward that orders had been issued from headquarters directing that no movement should be made while it rained or threatened to rain. The character of the movement was to be such that the cautiousness of General Meade would not allow of his running any undue risks in the matter and being baffled in the execution of his plans by the same element that defeated Burnside's last movement when he had command of the Army of the Potomac, namely,—Virginia mud. There may have been other reasons for delaying the movement, but this was one, so reported by pretty good authority. Who knows but the Chronicle's premature report had something to do with capsizing the thing. We surmise as much.
It is bright and clear to-day and the mud is fast drying up under the sun and a strong wind. It is rumored that the army will be in motion to-morrow mooring, perhaps to-night.
We have lain here a little over two weeks. The rail-road to Culpepper is in good condition, but that part just reconstructed was not, we think, intended for army purposes all winter. Rather shaky many portions of it.
The Paymaster has been around again and left us his compliments in a large number of "greybacks." The Government is certainly rich in paper money. There is a dearth of news, but if the army moves look out for something stirring.

Reynolds' Battery--Getting into Winter Quarters—Deaths and Promotions.
Dec. 17th, 1863. A cold, drizzling rain is falling, at times increasing in volume and coming down in torrents. It is one of Virginia's worst and most disagreeable days. Of course, among its unpleasant features is that of mud, which has commenced its reign in terrible earnest. You step outside your tent and you immediately encounter this formidable element which has so frequently baffled the brave and indomitable Army of the Potomac. The sacred soil receives your feet with the softness and pliability of a mortar bed. And yet, this is but a foretaste of what is in store for us during the coming days and weeks of our sojourn in this recreant State. We wish that the pleasant weather we have been so long enjoying, with now and then a day's exception, might have been vouchsafed to us a little longer, long enough until the completion of the stables for our battery horses, which all members of the company have been busily and earnestly engaged working upon since Saturday last. The flooring is all laid, consisting of large split logs about twelve feet long, all brought from woods a quarter or half a mile distant. The stables are in the form of three sides of a square and are between three and four hundred feet in length. No small task, cutting, hewing, drawing and laying all this timber, and it will be a greater one before the work is done, as we purpose stockading the stables with the same kind of material of which the flooring consists. And then some style of a covering must be gotten up, a thatched roof it may be, if we can run across some old hay or straw stacks, which were once plenteous in this vicinity, but now, thanks to the soldiers, are few and far between. Other batteries besides our own are employed in building stables, and the numerous Quartermasters in the army have been ordered to construct places of shelter for the thousands of public animals the property of Uncle Sam and branded with his initials, committed to their care. The troops have already made themselves comfortable, and numberless log huts dot hill and plain, field and wood along the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, from the Rappahannock to the neighborhood of Culpepper, like beavers, the soldiers have been at work since the late campaign preparing habitations wherein to dwell for the winter of 1863 and '64. Day and night the sound of axes has rung upon the air, and large and dense woods have been cleared of the trees for miles around. Near Brandy Station, where the army, or most of it, gets its supplies, timber has become so scarce that it is rumored the army will have to move across the river and establish another depot where fuel is more plenty. The troops who have establish their winter quarters after the expenditure of so much labor would become, perhaps, not a little " demoralized" if obliged now to leave them and establish new quarters. It would affect their zeal materially in the matter.
Our Battery has recently been called to mourn the loss of one of its number, who died on the 12th inst. in the field hospital of our brigade, of typhoid fever. The deceased's name was William Fraley, whose home was in Canona, Steuben Co., N. Y. He was one of our buglers, belonging to Battery E of our regiment, the organization of which was broken up some time ago, and its members— what few there were remaining— attached to Battery L. He was a bright little fellow, young, and small in stature, and we miss him from our midst very much. His death was sudden, the fever being of a rapid and malignant type. Poor boy. He was anticipating a furlough home this winter, but alas ! he was summoned to that long home "whence no traveler re turns." This is the first death by disease which has occurred in our company for many months.
Charles DeMott, formerly 1st Sergeant of our battery, has been promoted to 2d Lieutenant and assigned for duty to Battery D, 1st N. Y. Artillery. The promotion is a just and worthy one. Lieut. DeMott has been in the service over two years, and most faithfully and patriotically has he performed the duties of a soldier, and earned the appointment which has just been conferred upon him. He has gone from us attended with the best and heartiest wishes for his future success and welfare.
Second Lieut. Benj. F. Fuller, Battery A, has been ordered to report to Battery L for duty.
A letter just received by Capt. Reynolds, informs us that Major Reynolds has been appointed on the staff of Gen. Hooker and is Chief of Artillery, 11th and 12th corps. We congratulate our old commander on the honor he has received of so high and responsible a position and trust and feel considerably gratified that it is represented by the first Captain of Battery L. We have tried him and can assure Gen. Hooker that he has hit upon the right man for the place.
The judicious system adopted last winter of granting furloughs and leaves of absence, has been resumed by Gen. Meade, and many soldiers and officers are improving it. Its effects will certainly be good, as Gen. Hooker found them to be. Soldiers desire nothing better than sight and visit of home, and with old soldiers thirty or sixty days furlough, is the paramount inducement for re-enlisting.

Reynolds' Battery--Getting Into Winter Quarters--Deaths and Promotions
Dec. 17th, 1863 A cold, drizzling rain is falling, at times increasing in volume and coming down in torrents. It is one of Virginia's worst and most disagreeable days. Of course, among its unpleasant features is that of mud, which has commenced its reign in terrible earnest. You step outside your tent and you immediately encounter this formidable element which has so frequently baffled the brave and indomitable Army of the Potomac. The sacred soil receives your feet with the softness and pliability of a mortar bed. And yet, this is but a foretaste of what is in store for us during the coming days and weeks of our sojourn in this recreant State. We wish that the pleasant weather we have been so long enjoying, with now and then a day's exception, might have been vouchsafed to us a little longer, long enough until the completion of the stables for our battery horses, which all members of the company have been busily and earnestly engaged working upon since Saturday last. The flooring is all laid, consisting of large split logs about twelve feet long, all brought from woods a quarter or half a mile distant. The stables are in the form of three sides of a square and are between three and four hundred feet in length. No small task, cutting, hewing, drawing and laying all this timber, and it will be a greater one before the work is done, as we purpose stockading the stables with the same kind of material of which the flooring consists. And then some style of a covering must be gotten up, a thatched roof it may be, if we can run across some old hay or straw stacks, which were once plenteous in this vicinity, but now, thanks to the soldiers, are few and far between. Other batteries besides our own are employed in building stables, and the numerous Quartermasters in the army have been ordered to construct places of shelter for the thousands of public animals the property of Uncle Sam and branded with his initials, committed to their care.
The troops have already made themselves comfortable, and numberless log huts dot hill and plain, field and wood along the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, from the Rappahannock to the neighborhood of Culpepper. Like beavers, the soldiers have been at work since the late campaign preparing habitations wherein to dwell for the winter of 1863 and '64. Day and night the sound of axes has rung upon the air, and large and dense woods have been cleared of their trees for miles around. Near Brandy Station, where the army, or most of it, gets its supplies, timber has become so scarce that it is rumored the army will have to move across the river and establish another depot where fuel is more plenty. The troops who have established their winter quarters after the expenditure of so much labor would become, perhaps, not a little " demoralized" if obliged now to leave them and establish new quarters. It would affect their zeal materially in the matter.
Our Battery has recently been called to mourn the loss of one of its number, who died on the 12th inst. in the field hospital of our brigade, of typhoid fever. The deceased's name was William Fraley, whose home was in Canona, Steuben Co., N. Y. He was one of our buglers, belonging to Battery E of our regiment, the organization of which was broken up sometime ago, and its members—what few there were remaining- attached to Battery L. He was a bright little fellow, young, and small in stature, and we miss him from our midst very much. His death was sudden, the fever being of a rapid and malignant type. Poor boy. He was anticipating a furlough home this winter, but alas! he was summoned to that long home "whence no traveler returns." This is the first death by disease which has occurred in our company for many months.
Charles DeMott, formerly 1st Sergeant of our battery, has been promoted to 2d Lieutenant and assigned for duty to Battery D, 1st N.Y. Artillery. The promotion is a just and worthy one. Lieut. DeMott has been in the service over two years, and most faithfully and patriotically has he performed the duties of a soldier, and earned the appointment which has just been conferred upon him. He has gone from us, attended with the best and heartiest wishes for his future success and welfare.
Second Lieut. Benj. F. Fuller, Battery A, has been ordered to report to Battery L for duty.
A letter just received by Capt. Reynolds, informs us that Major Reynolds has been appointed on the staff of Gen. Hooker and is Chief of Artillery, 11th and 12th corps. We congratulate our old commander on the honor he has received of so high and responsible a position and trust, and feel considerably gratified that it is represented by the first Captain of Battery L. We have tried him and can assure Gen. Hooker that he has hit upon the right man for the place.
The judicious system adopted last winter of granting furloughs and leaves of absence, has been resumed by Gen. Meade, and many soldiers and officers are improving it. Its effects will certainly be good, as Gen. Hooker found them to be. Soldiers desire nothing better than a sight and visit of home, and with old soldiers, thirty or sixty days furlough, is the paramount inducement for re-enlisting.
G. B.

From Reynolds' Battery.
The following interesting letter from Reynolds' Battery, affords gratifying indication that the war spirit of these veteran artillerists has not yet subsided, and that the re-enlistment fever, is not confined to any grade of service in the grand Army of the Potomac:
CAMP NEAR CULPEPPER, Va., Jan. 5, '64.
It will be seen by the date of this that we have again changed our camp. At Kelley's Ford, where we had gone into winter quarters, as all supposed, we had nearly completed our huts and stables, and were just beginning to finish up for a comfortable winter, when at one in the afternoon of the 23d ult., assembly was blown, and after being aligned, Lieut. Breck announced to us that we had received marching orders. I will not attempt to portray the countenances, or describe the feelings of both officers and men, but leave it with the reader to imagine, for I feel my inability to the task, but I can assure you the wind was taken completely out of our sails, and all felt as though we had been deeply injured.
On the morning of the 24th, we struck tents and moved towards Culpepper; it being a bitter cold day and the wind blowing freely, added largely to our discomfiture. About 2 P.M. we arrived at Culpepper, and were marched a mile and a half south of the village, toward Pony Mountain, and went into camp on the margin of a pine grove, where to our surprise and gratification, we found the 8th N. Y. Cavalry were encamped. Here, on Christmas, we had the pleasure of shaking the hands of Charley Cozou, Ed Bardwell, Ben. Hubbard, and a number of other Rochester boys, all of whom were in fine health and spirits. At evening parade we were informed by our officers that the 8th Cavalry were to leave on the following day, and we were to occupy their camp. This cast a gloom over the cavalry-boys, for they, too, had built shanties for the winter, some of which were very nice and comfortable. After their departure, and we understood they moved toward Warrenton, it was ascertained their camp could not be made convenient or comfortable for our battery and horses, and here we are again, as busy as beavers, erecting houses and stables for the comfort of both man and beast. There has nothing of note occurred along our lines since here. All seems quiet and peaceable. Our camp is about half way between Culpepper and Pony Mountains, and we are at the front, there being nothing in advance but our picket.
There is a terrible fever prevailing in our army corps in regard to the joining of the veteran corps and receiving the large bounty, and our Battery has largely taken the infection. We were, a short time since, informed by our respected Captain that a number of our boys had put their names on the enlisting rolls, to fight three years more, if necessary, to plant our glorious old flag on the domes and spires in every city and village and town throughout the Union. As I write an officer has arrived, and our boys are being sworn in for the three years' service. As the veterans are entitled to a thirty-five day furlough, you will ere long have some of them among you. Our Battery is in its usual good condition and fine spirits, and as soon as we get over our hurry of building, should anything of interest occur, you may hear from us again. The weather is quite warm, and we are, today, having a flurry of snow.

From Reynolds' Battery.
January 17th, 1864.
After an absence of fifteen days I return to camp and find the battery located where I left it half a mile from Culpepper and near the base of Pony Mountain. Just before my departure north the company, for the second time this winter, had begun to construct houses and stables, nothing daunted because of labor lost in the extensive preparations of winter quarters at Kelly's Ford, which marching orders to the front obliged the sudden abandonment of. The second edition of stables is nearly completed, the roofing consisting of large fine slabs—of which the floor and stockade are also constructed—now being laid, and the men's log houses, genuine castles of their kind, are, with few exceptions, all done, and occupied. The air of comfort which some of these residences possess, with their fireplaces and mantlepieces, and cupboards are smoothly hewn floors, the walls artistically decorated with pictorial representations from Frank Leslie's and Harper's Weekly, compare favorably with domiciles of higher pretensions. Every man is the architect of his own house, as he is also the builder of it. The land costs him nothing and the material for building ditto. About the only implements he requires are an axe, a shovel and a wooden trowel, and a pair of industrious hands to use them. Virginia soil, saturated with a little water makes excellent mortar for filling up the cracks and crevices, and plastering the chimneys and walls, and the same sacred soil is to the occupant of the soldier exempt from all taxes, and the ruthless invasions of a merciless landlord. The only thing to disturb the soldier's home and possessions are the inevitable marching orders and Mr. Johnny Reb. For the present, until the opening of the spring campaign, I do not think our company will be molested by either of the above. Our hostile friends across the Rapidan are, from all accounts, as comfortably settled for the winter as ourselves, and both parties doubtless are desirous of being "let alone" till the advent of milder weather and longer days. Then, as the Army and Navy journal says, speaking of the approaching spring campaign, look out for a "war of the Titans that must shake the continent to its foundations."
Leaving Rochester on Tuesday at 8:55 p. M., I found myself in Albany the next morning at seven o'clock, an hour too late to take the early train for New York via the Hudson Road. The Central Road, which seldom fails to make the proper time, failed on this occasion, and a delay at Albany for two and a half hours was the consequence. I have nothing particular to say against the capital of the Empire State, but to the subscriber it is not the most interesting city in the world, perhaps on account of past associations with the Albany Barracks, where Battery "L" was quartered for a week before taking the field. Our experiences at this place were terribly bitter. The mess rooms were a fit spot for the congregation of swine, and the rations that were served up, oh dear! I believe the 54th regiment had a taste of the same last summer, and some of its members, I understand, were in consequence thereof effectually cured of soldiering. But I am digressing from my travel southward. 'The Hudson road lost two hours running to New York, and it was past 5 P. M. before we reached there. Leaving New York at half-past seven in the evening for Washington, via Philadelphia, or the Pennsylvania Central route, I arrived at W. at 9 A. M. the following morning, just in season to connect with the train running to Culpepper. We ought to have reached Washington at 6 o'clock. A great deal of fault is found with the Penn. Central road. The proper time is seldom made from New York to Baltimore, or vice versa, and these frequent delays have occasioned much grumbling by the citizens of New York and Washington, and there is a strenuous demand on the part of many for a new line of railway between the two cities. It is very likely that one will be built, though the policy of government undertaking its construction is a questionable one. If a second road is really needed let it be constructed by private enterprise and not at national expense.
The facilities for reaching the army of the Potomac now from Washington, are very good. A passenger train, of second class cars, runs regularly from Washington to Culpepper, daily stopping at several points along the Orange and Alexandria railroad, where there are large encampments, Brandy Station being the principal one, that being the general depot for army supplies. The train leaves Washington at 9:40 A. M., and arrives at Culpepper about 3 1-2 o'clock P. M. A number of civilians, including several ladies, were aboard the cars I came down in, on their way to the army. During my absence from camp, an order was issued allowing soldiers' and officers' friends and families to visit the army for a limited period. No doubt many at home will improve the opportunity afforded for making such a visit, and rest assured they will receive a soldier's glad welcome, and all the hospitality that camp life proffers. We bid our friends come and see us, promising the latchstring shall be out, and to acquaint them, to the best of our ability, with all the beauties and pleasures of a soldier's life in winter quarters.
Quite an abundance of snow fell here during the prevalence of the late storm at the North; but the beautiful weather of the last two days has dissipated it all.
The health of the Battery is very good, and but little sickness prevails anywhere in the army. The troops appear to be in the best of spirits.
Re-enlisting has been going on very vigorously. Twenty-five have re-enlisted in our own company and been mustered in anew for three years, receiving about $160 from Government to start with. There is much disappointment, however, felt by these re-enlisted men at not receiving their thirty-five days' furloughs, as was promised on their re-enlisting. Only 600 enlisted-men are allowed away from a corps at a time, but that number is not absent from the 1st corps on furlough, and there seems to be culpability in the matter of our men not getting their furloughs, resting at corps headquarters. It will probably be made right very shortly, but the delay in granting the furloughs as promised must naturally produce disappointment and dissatisfaction. Faith with the soldier should surely be kept under all circumstances, if it is a possible thing. The many conflicting and retracting orders about re-enlisting have discouraged many in the field from reoffering their services to the Government.

From Reynolds' Artillery
Headquarters Battery "L" 1st N.Y.
Artillery, Camp near Culpepper, Va.,
Jan. 18th, l864.
EDs Express:—Imagine anything worse, if you can, than to have to build winter quarters twice or, perhaps, three times during one winter. This has been our bad luck this winter, for you are undoubtedly aware that we, with the rest of the first corps, went into camp at Kelly's Ford, expecting to remain there until Spring, and with the experience of two winters in the field, we were enabled to build comfortable winter quarters for ourselves and horses. This done, we expected to "lay on our oars" and do nothing but eat our rations, write and receive letters from friends at home. Everything looked favorable. We had converted a wilderness into a fine camp, and the finishing stroke was about to be made, when on the 23d of December, we received orders to march at daylight on the following morning. You can well imagine that the exclamations made on that occasion were anything but of a pious nature, but, notwithstanding, shortly after sunrise on the 24th, just as we were turning the corner of a piece of wood, we could look back and see our log cabins (the work of weeks) with the mud chimneys and the stable in the rear-everything deserted. The whole of the First Corps was on the move, and we were nearly in the rear.
Christmas we spent near Culpepper, waiting for the 8th N..Y. Cavalry to vacate their quarters so that we might occupy them. They moved on the 20th, and we all secured a house. But here was bad luck again, for the cavalry moved but a few miles, and as their houses were built of boards, they came back with their horses and carried of most of the lumber, so we were left out of doors again, and for the past two weeks we have been hard at work building houses (if they may be called such) for ourselves, and stables for our horses. But this work is nearly done once more, and we sincerely hope we will be allowed to enjoy them this time.
The Sanitary condition of the Battery is good, numbering in all one hundred and eighteen men present.
Our camp is situated neatly one mile east, of Culpepper, and near Pony Mountain. There is an abundance of good water and a good supply of wood close at hand, making a camp all that can be in this country, and as our liberal "Uncle Sam" has made ample provisions for food and clothing, we are enjoying ourselves as well as co'd be expected, and some of our "boys" have become so habituated to a life in Virginia that they have determined to stay until the show is ended, and have accordingly re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, and consequently expect a furlough of thirty or thirty-five days to visit home, and you may expect ere many days to see some of them in Rochester.
The thirty days furlough is by far a greater inducement to re-enlist than all the money offered as bounties; in fact I am of the opinion that very few would have re-enlisted without the furlough, even if the bounties were doubled.
Sutlers are becoming more and more plenty with us, and as sutlers' goods increase, the demand and prices decrease; and perhaps before long, with the assistance of Provost Martial General Patrick, soldiers will be able to get what they need for its real value.
Trotting horses is the greatest amusement of the day. Every afternoon after returning from water, the horses are paraded in a ring in front of the stables for exercise, and all have a chance at trying the speed of his horse at a trot, (no running is allowed) and in some cases it gets quite interesting, even if the betting don't run very high and the speed of the horses not quite equal to the matchless Flora Temple; but if we can't trot with fast horses, we can certainly throw as much mud as any of them. For the past few days we have been favored with a clean covering for this Virginia mud in the shape of a few inches of snow, but now that has left us we are in the mud worse than ever.
It might be proper for me to give you an account of the good fortune of some of our members by way of promotions. Among them are: Serg't Charles De Mott, commissioned 2d Lieut, and at present doing duty with Battery "D," of this regiment, stationed near Stevensburg; and private Michael Canfleld, appointed Serg't Major.

Battery L, Base Ball
NEAR CULPEPPER, VA., March 10,1864.
News is a scarce commodity in the Army of the Potomac. Quietness reigns everywhere. The common monotonous routine of camp life is performed day after day, though its monotony is greatly broken and relieved by various amusements, principally ball playing. Every fair day, witnesses hundreds of officers and soldiers engaged in this favorite and excellent game. The members of Battery L have a particular passion for it, and eagerly improve their hours in the sport which it affords. Some of them are old hands at the game of base ball, and their names appear foremost in the honorable and distinguished record of the first ball clubs in Rochester and vicinity. There is " Teddy" Adams, for instance who won such brilliant laurels in the famous "Lone Star" Club. It to a real treat to see him catch a ball, he does it with so much ease and grace, arresting its flight and holding it with his fingers, with apparently a slight of hand movement. Very seldom does the ball escape his hands, if it comes anywhere near him. And it is a difficult task when he is "pitcher," for the "in" party to make the bases. He is hard to beat, is thoroughly conversant with the game, and every way fitted to command a base ball club. And then there are Asahel Morse, Martin Annis, Garry Minnamon, Maurice King, Martin Blogett, and others I might mention, who are admirable and skillful players of the renowned National Game of Base Ball.
A match game took place this afternoon on the drill and parade ground, front of our camp, between Battery L and the Excelsior B. B. Clubs, the latter composed of "boys" in the Quartermaster Department of our Brigade, who challenged any nine men of Battery L to play with or against them. It was a spirited and interesting affair and witnessed by a large crowd of officers and soldiers. The "Excelsior" had the first innings and made so many "runs" that outsiders began to question the ability of L Club to cope with their friendly adversary. But it didn't remain a question very long, for L boys entered the contest zealously determined to win, and by the time the third innings were made, "Excelsior" was away behind, and at the completion of the seventh innings—nine was to be the number—the Excelsior men threw up the game, declaring that L Club was altogether too much for them, and acknowledging themselves badly and fairly beaten, 23 runs against 71. Not a very closely contested game that, but mostly on one side. The following is the score:


Umpire - Capt. Bartholomew, 76th N. Y. vols.
Scorer - E. Hoekstra, Battery L
Scorer - S. Williams, Excelsior

It is expected when Lieut. Gen. Grant returns to Washington that he will furnish this army with immediate employment of a different kind than that of base ball playing, or perhaps I may say, a different kind of ball-playing, where the balls are not so easily batted and pleasantly caught, and where even the agile and dexterous Adams, who elicited so much praise to-day, would prefer "dodging" to "catching," Ball playing with Lee's veteran army! A most serious game. The Army of the Potomac has had several of them, and behold the sad result. A hundred thousand men killed and wounded! Is the army in its future solemn games of war, to present a duplicate record of that number of " outs?" We hope not, but may it count many great and glorious "innings.''
Our battery is filling up with recruits. Between thirty and forty new men have reported for duty. Of course, they are cordially welcomed.
The furloughs for our second lot of veteran volunteers have not been returned yet. Only a limited number can be allowed from the corps at a time.

From Battery L—-In the Southward March.
The following letter from a favorite correspondent in Reynolds' Battery has been slow in reaching us. Though it relates to army matters of some days since, it will well repay perusal:
In the Field, Near Hanover Town, VA.,
May 30,1884.
Within fifteen miles of Richmond. Another day's march would bring us within the precincts of the much coveted, long labored and hard fought for rebel capital—the great goal— which has cost three years of the severest marching and fighting to reach, the sacrifice of tens and thousands of lives, and the expenditure of countless treasure. But that day's march, which, if allowed to be performed without or with little opposition, would doubtless find us treading the streets of the great centre and strong-hold of the Southern Confederacy before the rising of to-morrow's sun, is destined to be lengthened into many days, for is it not, of course to be expected that literally every inch of ground between here and Richmond will be disputed by the enemy with the most stubborn obstinacy, the strongest tenacity, the most unyielding hostility; and, indeed, is it not reasonable to suppose that if Lee is compelled to retire behind the defences of Richmond that the result will be a hard and protracted siege of that city? As I write, picket firing is going on in front, about two miles distant, which may ensue in a battle ere long. An hour ago there were a few reports of cannon—from our side apparently. It is a warm, pleasant morning, a nice breeze is stirring, the air is a little hazy, and with the exception of the sound of skirmishing everything is very quiet. Our battery, with nine or ten others of the 5th Corps, is parked in a large, level field, horses unhitched and unharnessed, and grazing not far away. We have been in this locality since last evening. Yesterday afternoon we advanced from Hanover Town about three miles back, which place we arrived at the afternoon previous, crossing the Pamunky river between one and two o'clock P. M. The rebels made no opposition to our crossing, and it is said that the army's appearance at the place of crossing was entirely unexpected to the enemy, and took them by surprise. It is certain that a few pieces of cannon planted on the south bank of the river could have seriously interfered our troops from effecting a passage, and any considerable force might have prevented the army crossing at all. The Sixth Corps, or a portion of it, had crossed the river in the morning.
But let me briefly relate our movements, from the time my last letter was written the 19th. inst. We were then in park near Spottsylvania Court House. About five o'clock that afternoon an attack was made on one of our wagon trains on the Fredericksburg road, directly in our rear by a part of Ewell's forces. It was suddenly begun, and for a little while it seemed as if success would attend the musketry was very sharp, and the engagement lasted about an hour, resulting in a complete repulse of the enemy, though not without a severe loss in killed and wounded on our side. The 2d battalion of the 4th Heavy Artillery was acting as skirmishers or pickets at the time of the assaults, and I have been told that success on our part was due in a great measure to their stubbornness in resisting the advance of the rebel line, until reinforcements came up. And then the timely arrival of a Maryland regiment returning from furlough, coming from Fredericksburg helped materially in the repulse. Major Forsyth of your city, was also actively engaged with a small force of cavalry.
Our battery was ordered in the same position occupied the day before, to the left and front, in anticipation of an attack from that quarter. There was no demonstration made, however. We remained there all the next day. Towards evening, bands of music along the federal and and rebel lines, almost within sight of each other, struck up several airs most industriously. A Union band would play the Star Spangled Banner with a response from rebeldom with Dixie. Then the lively music of Yankee Doodle or the patriotic strains of Hail Columbia would be heard, followed on the other side by the Bonnie Blue Flag. The music was varieated with the occasional whizzing and zipping of a sharp-shooter's bullet. Is there a greater anomaly in the world than this matter of fighting between man and man?
On Saturday, the 21st inst., the army began what I denominate its third flank movement on the enemy's right. We took up our line of march that forenoon in the direction of Guinney's Station—moved through a beautiful country, very level, well cultivated, but thinly settled. The roads, as in fact are nearly all the roads we have traveled over since leaving Spottsylvania C. H., were lined on either side with beautiful cedar trees, and were in excellent condition. Fine large plantations, with elegant mansions, were scattered here and there, but their beauty and elegance, and all about them soon became destroyed and a waste as our army advanced, pillaging and marauding being more characteristic of this campaign than any other I ever participated in. Houses have been thoroughly ransacked and robbed of everything in a number of instances; elegant libraries, totally destroyed, and vandalism appears to have had full sway. A shame and disgrace is all this to our army and cause, doing us no good, but working us great evil.
Encamping near Guiney's Station Saturday night, we resumed the march at 9 o'clock the following morning, over the Telegraph Road, almost due south. It was warm and dusty. Marched about fifteen miles that day. There was some skirmishing in front of the column. We took position once, but were not in action. That night we encamped near Pole Cat creek. The march was resumed the next morning at 5 o'clock, Battery L following Ayer's division. It was a lovely morning, but the heat became quite intense by noon. Fields of waving grain and beautiful landscapes were to be seen on every hand. For the first time during the campaign, it became necessary for us to forage for our horses, the supplies of grain being limited and nearly exhausted. The country is well supplied with corn, or rather was before the system of foraging was resorted to. We have seen nothing, from the appearance of the country or the rebel prisoners, to indicate that starvation is or has been staring the to be hoped for "tottering" Southern Confederacy in the face. All the prisoners I have seen looked strong and hearty, equally well as our own men.
We reached the North Anna river about 3 P. M. on the 23d inst. The 2d and Burnside's corps moved on our left, the 6th corps in rear of the 5th. The advance of our corps crossed the river at Jericho’s Ford, by fording, and the speedy construction of a pontoon bridge, soon allowed all the corps to cross. The banks of the river at this point, as all along the river, so far as I could see, are very high and steep, and difficult of descent and ascent. The river is about the width of the Genesee. The enemy made no attempt to impede the progress of our troops while crossing the river. Rifle batteries were put in position on the north banks, to cover the passage of the troops. Our battery was on the extreme left, about a quarter of a mile below Jericho’s Ford. By 5 o'clock, the corps By 5 o'clock, the corps being on the south side, with several light 12 pound batteries, an advance was begun by extending the left and front of our lines. The right was left more or less exposed. The troops had not moved forward very far when all of a sudden, a terrific musketry fire way opened, and at the same time, a rebel battery belched forth its shot and shell, by an enfilade fire, into the midst of our troops, causing considerable disaster and disorder. This battery was to our left and front, about fifteen hundred yards distant, and we had a good range of it. We opened fire, as did another battery on our right, and in ten minutes the hostile battery was silenced.
In the meantime our infantry was hotly engaged with the rebel infantry, and were being roughly handled. In advancing they had alighted on what was almost an ambuscade, and were received with such deadly volleys of musketry that they broke and began to retire in great haste and confusion. These were not new men but old veterans who had borne the brunt of terrible battle time and again, and had so distinguished themselves in the various conflicts in which they had fought that they had won the proud distinction of the "Iron Brigade." But there are times when scarred and war-worn soldiers cower before the "leaden rain and iron hail of battle, particularly when such a furious storm bursts upon them at an unlooked for moment. While our infantry were thus falling back in bad order, and matters looked as though the who1e of the 5th corps would be driven into the river, the light twelve pounder batteries were quickly put in position and began their death dealing work. Battery H of our regiment, commanded by Captain Mink, a brave and fearless officer who has fought the rebellion from the beginning and whose battery did excellent service on Peninsula, poured forth double shares of canister into the rebel ranks immediately in front; and very soon the onset of the enemy was stayed. The infantry were rallied and in turn began to drive the rebels. Battery D of our regiment did good execution. Never was the strength and efficiency of the artillery arm of the service more marked than on this occasion. It saved the day, in all probability, saved the 5th corps, or changed what was likely to prove a terrible disaster to our army into a victory. Those on the north side of the river, who had an extended view of all that was transpiring on the south side, trembled for the result of the issue as they saw our troops breaking and hurriedly falling back towards the steep banks of the river. The thought of another Ball Bluff disaster, or something similar, occurred to their minds. Two officers of our regiment were wounded in this engagement, one mortally, Capt. Davis of Battery E Brigade Inspector, who was shot in the neck and shoulder and died while being conveyed to Fredericksburg. He had been recently promoted to a Captaincy and was a fine man and officer. Lt. Matthewson, in command of Battery D at the time of action, received a flesh wound in his leg. He had just been relieved at his own request, acting assistant Adjutant General of the artillery brigade of our corps in order to assume command of the above battery.
On Tuesday afternoon, May 24th, we crossed the North Anna and encamped near the river till the morning of the 26th, when we recrossed the river, and again went into camp near the north bank. A heavy rain fell in the morning during our march, and all hands got the benefit of a thorough drenching. The 6th corps had recrossed the river the night previous, and was on its way to the Pamunky. Another flank movement by our army. Gen. Grant found Lee too strongly and formidably entrenched to turn his position on the North Anna, and the disposition of our troops was such, owing to the nature of the river and the enemy's works, that it was impossible to reinforce one wing or corps, by another in case of necessity, without first crossing the river and then re-crossing it— which before that was accomplished Lee might be able to totally defeat a part of our army, by massing his forces at that particular point. There is no mistake that our army was in a bad shape at the North Anna river, and Gen. Meade is reported to have said, when the army had returned to the north side of the river, that it was a matter of congratulation the enemy did not take advantage to mass his troops against any single corps or wing of our army.
The destruction of a portion of the Virginia Central R. R., leading to Gordonsville, was one thing accomplished by the movement to North Anna river. I think the loss of life in the two or three days' desultory engagements, was greater on our than on the rebel side.
At 6 p. m., on the day of recrossing the river, we were ordered to be ready to move. After patiently waiting for nine long hours for the movement to begin we moved out and marched very rapidly all day, reaching Brandy Mine at 9 o'clock p. m. Our march was through a rich, fertile country and over fine roads, like the marches of the few preceding days. We passed a most magnificent plantation, the property of a widow lady who has a son commanding a rebel battery. The negro huts, fifteen or twenty in number, were laid out in the form of a semicircle of uniform size, and the mansion, the residence of the widow, was purely Virginian, of the real "manor" kind. There were fifty negroes on the place when the advance of our column reached it, but we venture to say, that they have all availed themselves ere now of the benefits of the emancipation. We saw two or three cart loads of big blacks and little blacks with all their motley worldly effects, drawn by oxen, following in the wake of the army. So much more of the rebellion crushed, thought we, if slavery has been the sole cause of it and is all that actually keeps it alive.
Early Saturday morning our march was resumed and the hottest and dirtiest one we have experienced in the campaign. I have mentioned our arrival at the Pamunky, our crossing the river, and our movements up till to-day. As before conjectured, I think it probable this campaign will terminate in taking Richmond by seige if Lee retires to its defences. Grant's object appears to be the defeat and dispersion of Lee's army if possible, possession of rebel Capital being a minor consideration with him. We believe he is right. It is the rat we are after, not so much the rat hole.
The army's base of supplies is now at White House Landing I have been informed. We are about eighteen twenty miles from there, and communication is open and safe. Reinforcements continue to arrive daily, sometimes in groups of five thousand each. The inhabitants the country which have passed are astounded at such multitudes men. They declare that Richmond must be conquered by what they consider such countless numbers. woman not from hope that it might fall into the Yankees' hands before Saturday night. She, like hundreds of citizens of the Old Dominion, of the war, and well they may be, have been stripped and robbed of everything.
James W. Angus of Palmyra, one of the buglers of the company, has been missing since Thursday of the 19th inst. was dispatched on an errand that morning, while we lay at Spottsylvania C. H. and has not been seen or heard of since. He was and is that he lost strayed lines and was prisoner into the hands of some guerrilas.
G. B.
Tuesday, May 31,—As anticipated, the heavy picket and skirmish morning, resulted in quite a severe engagement before night. The First division of the 5th corps had been gradually advancing to the left all the 2 clock in the afternoon the rebels were seen about in front of the line of the 5th corps, drawn up for battle. They constituted a part of Ewell's corps and soon became engaged with our troops. They made a furious charge on battery D of our regiment, approached within one or two hundred yards of it, when the deadly and fearful effects of canister charges, and the volleys of musketry caused the rebels to break and run. Then ensued an awful carnage. Hundreds were slain and wounded, and many were taken prisoners! Among the killed was a rebel Brigadier General and a number of line officers. I visited the field morning where the was made, and the ground was strewn with the dead, presenting one War's most horrid sights. A large pioneer corps has been employed all the forenoon dead and taking off their wounded.
In the midst of yesterday's conflict, and when it seemed as if the enemy would drive our troops, our battery was ordered to the front on a double quick — or a in artillery parlance,— under the fire of We took positions on the left of where the charge was made, immediately opened fire on the was throwing its destructive missiles our Half an hour's engagement sufficed to silence our hostile neighbor, and we heard no more from it. We suffered no casualty.
There was heavy cannonading on the right of our lines, by Burnside's corps, I believe. There had been more or less firing in that direction all this forenoon. seem be massing troops there. The flanks of our army are now more posed in this more open, level country, and will have to be watched carefully, or Lee will be apt to attack one or the other with an overwhelming force. Our right wing is said to rest within six or seven miles of Richmond. We wonder where the close of will find the army? This is the last day of May. The last day of and what, and where then?
G. B.

From Battery L— Change of Base - - Death of Lt. De Mott.--Night Assaults
June 7, 1864.
The name of Gaines' Mill must sound very familiar to my readers, for it is the name of the first great battle that was fought at the commencement of Gen. M'Clellan's preparations to change his base of operations against Richmond from the Peninsula to the James river. Two years ago the 27th of this month this battle was fought, and although Gen. Porter was defeated it was a defeat which cost the enemy one of the severest and deadliest struggles to accomplish that have taken place during the war. All day long the conflict raged, the rebels numbering two to one against the Union troops, and attacking every point of our lines in superior force and the most determined manner. Seventy thousand troops against thirty-five thousand, how was it possible to contend successfully against such overwhelming numbers, and yet, the point aimed at and desperately fought for by the enemy was not obtained, and owing to the unequaled bravery, valor, and discipline of our men. And then the series of sanguinary engagements which followed that of Gaines' Mill in daily succession, have made the ground all about this locality memorable and historic. Coal Harbor is near here, where army headquarters have been established for about a week past. I think they were moved further to the left yesterday.
We have been here, encamped, since late Sunday night. Nearly all the 5th corps was in this vicinity, yesterday morning, enjoying a season of rest, but two, if not three divisions, are now in position, or are moving to take one. The first division, Gen. Griffin, with three batteries, has gone to Bottom's Bridge, and I understand that the whole army is soon to cross the Chickahominy. It seems to be the general impression among the troops, that military operations are to be transferred to the James River, but it is next to impossible to ascertain with any degree of positiveness, what is transpiring in the army, outside of one's own immediate command, much more, what is going to transpire. There has probably never been a campaign when so little was known what was going on in the field, or what movements were likely to take place outside of the commanding General. Corps commanders have been kept in the dark, absolutely so, very frequently as to the main designs and plans of the General commander. It has been a matter of almost as great conjecture to them at times as to what general army movements meant, as to subordinate officers. Perhaps the success that has attended this campaign is due in a measure to the secrecy with which it has been carried on by Grant and Meade.
Since last writing our battery has been engaged two or three times with the enemy's batteries, but no causality has occurred. Last Thursday we took position from the right to the extreme left of the 5th corps, the right of the 18th corps resting on our left, about a mile distant. We advanced to the position under a heavy artillery fire and exposed to the fire of sharpshooters. It was a very difficult matter to get range of the rebel guns, some of them 20 or 23 pounders, they being very much under cover and concealed by two belts of timber. After a pretty hot artillery duel, both sides seemed to suspend firing as if by mutual consent, though we gave the last shot The firing was renewed occasionally during the following day, we beginning it early the next morning, a general attack was to be made that morning along our lines, so I was informed, but the fighting was confined chiefly to the right, between Burnside's and Warren's corps, and a large force of the rebels. It was a desperate battle, the enemy trying to turn our right flank, and cause a disastrous defeat to our army. He was driven back, however, with great slaughter, but not without inflicting a severe loss on our side too. The afternoon previous, when the Fifth corps was advancing to the left, the rebels attempted to break our lines, but Burnside was near by and saved the day.
All through this campaign, whenever a flank movement has been made, or when the lines have been extended to the left, the plan has been to move the corps which was on right to the left, then the next corps to the left of that, and so on until the first corps thus moved, became the right of the line again. A kind of telescopic plan of field manoevering.

The Change of Base-Crossing James River--Battery L
Va., June 15, I864.
Another movement of the Army of the Potomac by the left flank. Another change of ''base." The life of operations which Gen. Grant tho't and declared he would use if it took all summer has certainly been abandoned, and that line is in process of adoption by which Gen. McClellan first proposed to operate against Richmond, but which, for well known reasons he had to abandon for the Chickahominy. We all believed that Grant was too much of a soldier and too great a general to adhere to a certain line of military operations, when it became necessary to change it for a better and more practicable one, even though he had made a public and official declaration that he should operate on such a line only. The change of base and operations to the south bank of the James River is proof of Gen. Grant's wisdom and strategical abilities in accomodating himself to circumstances, and conforming his conduct to such movements as will best insure the capture of Richmond and the defeat of Lee's army.
Before this reaches you, the whole army will doubtless have crossed the James River and begun operations on the south side of that famed stream. Already a portion of it has crossed, part of the 2d corps and some of the 6th. I have been informed "Baldy" Smith's troops have also recrossed, taking transports at the White House. My letter, you perceive, is dated near Charles City Court House. It lies about a mile directly east of our camp and is the present location of Grant's and Meade's headquarters. South of us about half a mile is the "beautiful James;" beautiful in itself and in its surroundings, a broad and placid stream, with picturesque banks, reminding us of the beauties of our own " beloved Hudson." Sitting at our tent we can see the smoke of steamers or propellers, lying at the landing—called Wilcox's - for moving up and down the river, and the occasional whistle of the engines breaks the stillness pervading in camp.
We arrived at this point Monday night about 12 o'clock, leaving the Chickahominy that afternoon at 4 o'clock, and making a very rapid march. Our own battery, with two or three others, and a brigade of the 4th division of the 5th corps, moved in rear of the 5th corps with the remainder of the corps waiting till a later hour to move and taking a different route. We were on the south side of the Chickahominy, near Bottom's Bridge, on Monday, for a few hours only, having crossed that war-historic stream early Monday morning at Long Bridge, or between long and Bottom's Bridge, I don't know which. We moved up the river about two miles, halting for the time above mentioned. The Chickahominy is too familiar to my readers to require any attention from my pen. Suffice it to say that we saw all we wished of it, had no desire to remain and operate in its swamps, and were glad enough when we escaped its unattractive and malarious district and entered upon the healthy and open fields in the direction of James River. What the Chickahominy must have been when McClellan was operating along it and its vicinity, I never fully imagined, until I came to see the sluggish stream buried in an almost impenetrable thicket of woods surrounded by huge swamps. Now, the grounds on which McClellan's operations are conducted, are dry and easily traversed, a consequence of the splendid weather which has characterized this campaign; but then, the heavy and constant rains made the soil vast beds of mud and slough, and the wonder is how Gen. McClellan was ever able to conduct military operations at all, why he didn't give up in despair with such an array of obstacles and elements to contend against, political and natural. His lofty and devoted patriotism, and his great military genius, saved the army and saved the country.
The onward course of Grant from the Rapidan to the James is due not a little to the bright suns and genial air, to the incomparably good roads with which the Lieut. General has been favored from the commencement of the campaign. And then, who will say that mischievous politicians have not been kept at bay, that they have been allowed to interfere with the operations and movements of the Army of the Potomac, counseling and advising Gen. Grant to do this and not to do that, and setting up their peculiar views as to how military matters should be conducted, in opposition to men of military education and science. And then again, and this has not been withheld, but men and material have been given without stint, reinforcements have been furnished in full, responsive to all demands for them, and in a word, most happily and rejoicingly, the conduct of the war has been entrusted, on the let alone principle, to Lieut. General Grant, who has proved himself eminently worthy of the trust and responsibility committed to him, and who, we devoutly hope, will become the hero of Richmond as he now is the hero of Vicksburg.
As I write, distant cannonading can be heard in the direction of the Chickahominy apparently. It has been exceedingly quiet for the past few days. The enemy has not been disposed, seemingly so at least, to impede the army's movements, and few demonstrations have been made. I suppose it is about time to hear from our cavalry who started off the other day on a general raiding and destructive tour towards Gordonsville, Charlottesville, & c.
John C. Minnamon of our battery, wounded in the foot at Spottsylvania C. H., necessitating amputation, is reported to have died in the hospital Washington. His death is a severe loss to the battery, as he was one if its best and truest members, a good, brave and veteran soldier, a boon companion, beloved by his comrades and officers, who deeply mourn his loss. Precious indeed it that country upon whose altar is voluntarily offered such a life as that of our late friend and comrade.
The weather continues beautiful and the troops are in the very best of spirits. The country about here is the finest I have seen in Virginia, the greatest wheat growing district in the State, I understand. We are encamped in a large wheat field, or what was once such, constituting part of an extensive and elegant plantation. A mansion across the road is said to have been the residence of President Tyler. The infantry are crossing the river on trans-ports, and the batteries and trains, I have been told, are to cross over on pontoons.

From Battery L — The Hospitals-Explosion of the Mine and the Result.
July 29, 1864
I did not think when I last wrote that three or of four weeks would elapse before writing again, and t hat my next letter would be dated from a hospital. Your correspondent was congratulating himself on his fortunate exemption from sickness in the field, and was disposed to lay the flattering unction to his soul that he should escape while in the service the many " ills which flesh is heir to." But this malarious region of the country was too much for him. -Like hundreds, if not thousands, in the army who are or have been sick with the same complaint, he was attacked with malarial fever, and this accounts for the delay in writing, and the place of date. A resort to quinine — the all-healing antidote for malarial fevers, and the great preventive too, if used in season and judiciously-soon disposes of this fever, and puts a man on his feet again, though his steps at first after recovery must needs be somewhat "shaky" and few in number. Such is the experience of the writer, at any rate.
The Fifth Corps Hospital, and particularly the Artillery Brigade portion of it, is very pleasantly situated, on high, dry ground, surrounded by scattering trees, a heavy woods extending to the left, airy, and free from dust. Across a narrow ravine in front is a number of old rebel huts, pretty well dilapidated, but giving proof of former comfort and substantiality. They were probably built during the Blackwater campaign in '62. North of the hospitals, about a mile and a half, are the 10th and 18th corps, near which the enemy's works were unsuccessfully assailed, when operation first began here. Occasionally a stray shot or shell finds its way over in this vicinity, but seldom, doing any harm.
There are those present about four hundred patients in the four division and artillery brigade hospitals of this corps, sick and wounded, all doing very well, with few exceptions. The medical care, good nourishment and kind attention and treatment extended to the patients are all that can be asked in the field, judging from what I know and have seen here in the artillery hospital. The Sanitary and Christian Commissions have established stations here, whence are distributed in bountiful profusion stores, reading matter and various supplies. An order from the surgeon will procure almost any delicacy to be found in a large city. The two Commissions are both the Good Samaritans and the Good shepherd.
An order has been received since commencing this to send a large number of the sick and wounded in the several corps hospitals to the general hospital at City Point, It is the current report that there is to be a general attack by our forces on the enemy's line to-morrow morning and the above order goes to confirm its correct-ness. Sure it is that the most active preparations for something have been in progress the past four weeks. New and large forts have been thrown up, the heaviest mortars have been put in position and wherever it has been possible to plant a gun, light or heavy calibre, there one may be found strongly entrenched and frequently made bomb-proof.
Battery L, commanded at present by Lieut. Anderson, has gone into one of the large square forts, recently built, a short distance to the left and in the rear of the position occupied by the battery for the last four or five weeks. This fort lies on the west side of the Jerusalem plank road and is intended purely for defensive purposes. It is about four hundred feet square, contains a brigade of the 3d division and two batteries including our own. Battery L is now in position facing the opposite direction from what it was, fronting an imaginary or apprehended enemy, instead of a real foe, its guns pointing away from Petersburg, towards the South, in lieu of pointing northward, in the direction of the city. This is to guard against an attack, which the enemy may possibly make in our rear. Battery L's guns will necessarily be silent the battle of to-morrow, if there be one.
We have been favored with two good, heavy rain storm since my last, and I need not tell my reader how joyfully acceptable they were. Sixty consecutive days' envelopment in heat and dust had produced earnest longings for rain. August and September will doubtless be the severest months for the army.
July 30.
The great attack took place this - morning, lasting for three or four hours. The cannonading was as terrific as that at Gettysburg. The fighting I am told, was of the most desperate character, and yet, the enemy was taken so much by surprise, and was so panic-stricken at the explosion of the mine, that our troops at first took possession of the first line of works with comparative ease. The details of the fight I have not learned, further than that one, some say two, lines of works were captured in front of Burnside's corps. How many guns and prisoners were taken, I do not know.
The action began at half-past four o'clock, the batteries first opening fire at a signal being given. This signal was the explosion of a mine under the Battery or fort in front of the advanced position of Burnside's corps. The mine was sprung and immediately the batteries all opened a most galling and destructive fire. The explosion of the mine, is described, by eyewitnesses, as one of the grandest sights of the war, and yet, sad enough in its results to the enemy. A regiment of two or three hundred rebels, and a battery, are said to have been destroyed, when the work blew up, ten or twelve men escaping, only, two or three of whom were captured, and reported the above. These prisoners stated that they had been told a mine was being dug under the fort, and they excavated to the depth of fifteen feet, but finding no mine, concluded there was none. By digging five feet further they might have discovered it. Twelve thousand pounds of powder were in the mine. At the explosion, the earth was thrown up, like a great water spout, fifty feet in the air. It resembled a great cone, a mass of earth, mingled with smoke.
The plan was, as soon as the mine was sprung for a storming party to advance over the ruins of the explosion, and so soon as entrance was effected a strong body of troops was to move to the right and left behind the enemy's line, to clear out his troops, and move to the front to gain the crest of an important hill, and if possible to enter the town of Petersburg. This plan was carried out in part, but the crest was not taken and the city of Petersburg is not ours yet. About nine or ten o'clock orders were issued from army headquarters to suspend further action, and as I now write everything is very quiet, except the occasional firing of a gun or of skirmishers. Whether the attack will be renewed to-day or to-morrow, or postponed for a season, I do not know. What our losses have been I cannot tell but must refer my readers to other correspondents.
Battery L was not engaged, as none of the batteries or troops were on the extreme left of the 5th corps, and hence, fortunately, I have no casualties to record in the battery.
Major R. H. Fitzhugh, on Col. Wainwright's staff of our regiment, was hit by a bullet in the right side while standing near a battery on the extreme right of the 5th Corps; but he escaped with a flesh wound, and is here at the hospital lying on the left of your correspondent, doing well. We like the Major. He is a "good fellow" and a brave officer. We console him, or try to do so, by assuring him that his wound will take him home for thirty or sixty days, and that will "pay.'' The regiment could ill afford to lose Major Fitzhugh permanently.
This is one of the hottest days of the season, sultry and oppressive. Fatigue admonishes me that I must close, and with the expectation of delivering this personally, I remain, &c.,
G. B.
P. S.—News has just reached the hospital that the rebels have retaken the works we took this morning capturing a considerable number of our troops in the bargain. This is certainly not very encouraging. After weeks of the severest toil at seiging, mining, building forts, &c., after all the extensive preparations made for the taking of Petersburg, and after a partial success of the plans, which were first put into operation this morning,—after all this, to lose all or the little we gained and the result of the most arduous labors, and be put back exactly where the army had position previous to the attack, this is not a very cheering thought, surely. Well, I suppose we must "up and at them" again. Endurance and pertinacity will conquer in the end, so it is said. But we predict a new base or line of operations in a very few days.
I am reliably informed that had our troops pushed vigorously on at the attack this morning after taking the first line of works, the second and third would certainly have been carried, the rebel forces would have been divided and a great victory would have been achieved. Petersburg would have been ours. There was blundering somewhere. Our troops were halted after taking the first line of works, and halted long enough to enable the rebels to rally to enfilade our forces with a murderous artillery fire, flank the negro brigade, which caused the "colored braves" to break and run, and then there was confusion, disorder and disaster. Perhaps it will be denominated another of those unfortunate " accidents" which we were told happened at the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg.

Army of the Potomac—Battery "L" in Winter Quarters—Rejoicing Over Victories—Promotions, &c.
Dec. 24, 1864.
As the caption of my letter denotes, we are no longer stationed at Fort Keene, where we lay for nearly three months, but are now three miles east of that Fort, in rear of Fort Stevenson, and about six miles from Petersburg. Fort Stevenson is located along the rear line of works, fronting North and South, and is one of the largest fortifications there is in this field, capable of accommodating thirty guns. All the Fifth Corps are at present in the reserve, encamped between the Weldon and Jerusalem roads. I say all, but this is not strictly correct, for three of the 5th Corps batteries are now at the front, along the lines of the 9th Corps, and will remain there two weeks, when they will be relieved by three more batteries from the same corps, and so on until all the batteries have served two weeks, when they will again take their respective turns. Battery "L's" turn will come next month. Only the guns and gun detachments go to the front, the horses, caissons, & c., remaining here in camp, which was named Camp Wainwright, in honor of Brevet Brig. Gen. Wainwright, Chief of Artillery of the Fifth Corps. The camp is near Fifth Corps headquarters, and when the batteries have completed their winter quarters, on which they are busily at work, it will be in every respect a fine camp. It is in the form of a square, there being on each side from two to four batteries. Gen. Wainwright's headquarters are at the northwest corner, and so situated as to overlook the whole camp. Inside the square the ground is well adapted for drill. Each battery has a front of about one hundred yards. The men's huts are built in one row, thirty yards in rear of the park, each hut 12 by 14 feet and 6 feet high, calculated to hold eight men and a non-commissioned officer. The internal arrangements are such as to give the non-commissioned officer in charge of each hut the means of carrying out in the fullest manner the regulations prescribing the duties of a non-commissioned officer in charge of a squad. The huts are certainly very nice and comfortable, each with a large fire-place in the rear and centre, and as to Battery "L," it can boast of brick fire-places, with chimneys warranted not to smoke. Good stables will he built, and elaborate preparations for a winter's sojourn in this locality are the order of the day. No positive orders have been issued from army headquarters, but the matter was intimated by Gen. Warren of our corps, and that was amply sufficient for the troops to act upon. They seem content to keep Gen. Lee's army at a stand still by simply confronting it, while Sherman and Thomas are making terrible havoc with the rebel forces further south.
Last night news was received of the capture of Savannah with 15,000 men, the utter defeat of Hood's army, the hopeful prospect of the fall of Wilmington, the straightened condition of matters at Richmond, the bronchial affection and confinement to the house of King Jeff and the apparent speedy collapse of all rebellion generally. As these joyful tidings were communicated to the different camps, the air resounded with cheers and shouts, with the beating of drums, the music of bands, the roar of cannon, and demonstrations of delight and enthusiasm all along the lines. "The war is ended," shouted one soldier. "The rebels are played out," cried another. "Hurrah for Sherman, and bully for Thomas," said a third. "Glorious news, isn't it?" was the remark of all to each other. Surely the Southern Confederacy, in a military point of new, is in a most damaged plight, and is truly "reeling" under the ponderous blows of our noble troops. No wonder the Richmond Examiner utters a tirade of invective against Jeff. Davis and prophesies nought but evil and disaster to the rebel cause if things go on as they have gone on in the hands of Hood. Bright and cheerful indeed is the situation for our side. May it continue to grow more and more so until by the blessing of God the armed force of rebellion shall be broken and Peace and Union shall be restored to our land! Heaven grant that from these great and glorious military victories over the enemies of our country may be evoked by wise, sagacious and practical statesmanship the fruits which such triumphant successes ought to yield.
I have the pleasure of recording two more promotions in Battery "L." First Sergeants Charles A. Rooney and Frederick Deitz have both been commissioned as 2d lieutenants in the First N. Y. Artillery Regiment. They joined the Battery at its earliest organization and passed through the grades of non-commissioned offices, filling their positions with credit to themselves and dignity to the company. Brave and reliable in battle, soldierly and faithful in camp, re-enlisted veterans in the service of their country, they have justly won and will honorably bear their commissions.
Lieut. Rooney has been assigned to duty in B company, and Lieut. Deitz remains with Battery L. Lieut. William H. Shelton has been transferred from D Battery to his old command, Battery L, and ordered to report immediately to the latter. Unfortunately he cannot do that, as he is a prisoner in the enemy's hands, having been since the battle of the Wilderness. During his imprisonment he has been prompted from a second to a first Lieutenancy. We sincerely hope to hear of his speedy release or exchange. He will receive a. most cordial welcome from his old comrades.
The weather is very cold. The frigid temperature or something else causes deserters to come into our lines daily. I have seen several the past few days, minus overcoats and blankets, and very scantily not to say shabbily appareled. And by the bye, speaking of rebels' clothes, reminds me of what a certain member of Battery L (my readers may call him a loyal copperhead if they please) did to-day. Seeing a pair of old, grim, dirty, worn-out pants lying on the ground in front of headquarters, formerly the property no doubt, from their size, of a little " grayback"—for they were exceedingly small in dimensions—he very tenderly picked them up, hung them on a tree and pinned thereto a piece of paper on which was inscribed the following significant quotation and record:
Franklin ….5,000
Nashville ….10,000
It was suggested that they be boxed up and sent to the Lieutenant General.

Jan. 5th, 1865.
One would scarcely know from observation and experience here in the army, that Christmas and New Year's days, the great holidays of the year, had come and gone. It may be that their observance was more joyously and particularly marked outside of our brigade command, but nothing of a very festal character occurred at Camp Wainwright. The men of the several batteries devoted these time-honored days mostly to the building and completion of their log domicils. The chimnies of most of the huts were sufficiently advanced to admit of a visit from Santa Claus or St. Nicholas, had these generous and distinguished personages been disposed to make a call. Indeed, so commodious are some of the chimnies that "Old Nick" might have entered and descended them with his whole budget of holiday gifts, and then he might have got lost. These chimnies are remarkable on more than one account; not only for their goodly proportions, so characteristic of those belonging to the mansions of the "Old Dominion," and excellent drawing qualities, but they combine all the advantages of ventilation so essential in a sanitary point of view.
The day following Christmas, Batteries L and H were ordered to proceed to the field in front of Ninth Corps headquarters, about four miles from Camp Wainwright, and fire a salute of one hundred guns in honor of the capture of Savannah. The order was complied with at an early hour and the salute passed off satisfactorily. The salute was with blank cartridges, and not a shotted one, as is customary in firing salutes along the lines of Petersburg. Loud demonstrations were in readiness to be made at the news of the fall of Wilmington, but it fell not, and so our rejoicings for that long wished for triumph are postponed only for a short season, we hope.
Maj. Gen. Warren, commanding the Fifth Corps, extended an invitation on Monday of this week to any of his command to call on him at his headquarters who felt so disposed. With few exceptions all the officers of the corps responded to the invitation and the occasion was a very happy one to the General and the callers. There was a large turnout of shoulder-straps, sashes and sabres, and Gen. Warren received his friends with a truly warm greeting and much hospitality. A fine entertainment was spread in an adjoining tent, to which all were invited to partake of. This making and renewing the acquaintance of the general commanding the corps and his subordinate officers is certainly a pleasant and desirable thing, considered personally, socially and militarily. Gen. Warren is very agreeable and urbane in his manners, and is very much f liked and esteemed by his command. His black hair, dark, swarthy complexion, keen black eyes, rather thin face with a prominent nose, and comparatively small figure, all combined have acquired for him the sobriquet of "Little Indian." He is very quick and energetic in his movements, and is one of the hardest, most indefatigable workers of all the officers in the army. He is pronounced one of the best engineers in the service, and several time it has been rumored that he was to serve on Gen. Grant's staff as chief engineer. He is brave as the bravest, and is excelled by no general, and equalled by few in forming, correctly and scientifically, a line of battle and making a proper disposition of troops in time of engagement. If I mistake not, he is the youngest Major General of Volunteers in the Army of the Potomac. Gen. Warren is now on leave of absence for fifteen days; but Maj. Gen. Crawford is commanding the corps.
The guns and gun detachments of Battery L are doing garrison duty along the lines of the 9th corps. They went to the front on Monday to remain two weeks, when they will be returned to camp, where the rest of the Battery now is. One section of the battery is where we were in position last summer, between Fort Davis (then Fort Warren) and "Fort Hell," in command of Lieut. Deits. The other two sections are about a mile on the left, in Fort Hayes, and in command of Lieut. Perine. The pickets keep up a desultory firing along the lines at night, and occasionally there is cannonading and mortar practice. Very seldom any casualties from all this firing.
I will close this brief letter for the information of all concerned with a list of the noncommissioned officers of Battery L, now that the company has undergone a partial reorganization since its original time expired, when it lost so many of its old sergeants and corporals. The names of the present non-commissioned "staff" speak for themselves. It might not be regarded as exactly proper for your correspondent to dilate upon their valor, efficiency, &c. Suffice it to say, that they have been tried in camp and the ordeal of battle, and have been found not wanting:
First Sergeant—Victor Gretter; Second Q. M. Sergeant—James Kiggan; Duty Sergeants- George B. Blake, Charles T. Jones, Adolphus S. Goodrich, Marshal Blodget, Joseph McIntyre, Judah S. Wells; Corporals—Arabel B. Morse, David Stewart, Thomas Keate, Alert Ades, Morris King, Charles H. Koch, Frank Lake, George E. Adams, George S. Canute, George Eichorn, Charles H. Burdick; Buglars— Alexander Shults, A. Monroe Doane; Guidon— William P. Hughes.
G. B.

Battery L in the Late Fight at Hatcher's Run--Notes of what's Transpired.
Feb 12th, 1865.
Another left flank movement has been made by the Army of the Potomac, resulting in the extension of its lines about four miles, and wresting from the enemy the ground in the vicinity of Hatcher's Run, where the scene of last October's unfortunate operations took place. This result was accomplished with the loss of about one thousand men killed and wounded and taken prisoners on our side, with a similar loss on the part of the enemy. The papers have furnished my readers the particulars of the movement, and so I shall confine myself to the operations performed by Battery L and what passed under my own observation in the affair.
Three batteries, or rather two sections each of three batteries of the Fifth Corps, started off last Sunday morning, following Gibbin's Division, namely, Batteries L and D 1st N, Y., and the 9th Mass. Battery. The guns and caissons were each drawn by eight horses, and the men and animals were supplied with four day's rations and forage. We took the Halifax road, running nearly parallel with the Weldon road, and then struck off in a north-westerly direction, to form a junction with the 3d corps, whose course was on the Vaughn road. The roads were in a very favorable condition, admiting the passage of artillery and wagons with little trouble. Arriving at Romanty Creek, or a stream which emptied into it, called Monk's Head, we found the bridge destroyed, which necessitated the building of another, the bed of the stream being extremely marshy. This was done under the personal direction of General Warden. Near the east side of this creek was a large frame house, surrounded by several barns, sheds and negro huts, which, before the troops got across the stream, were all set on fire and consumed. Several buildings had been burned before this along the route of march, but happily all deserted if I mistake not. In front of the above house, near the road, scattered on the ground, were human bones—here the bone of an arm, there of a leg, burned and blackened, portraying fearfully the horrors of war. It was on this spot, so I was informed, that some ambulances were abandoned or captured and destroyed by fire during Wilton's great cavalry raid on Burkesville last summer. In these ambulances were some wounded Union soldiers, left to take care of themselves, which they were unable to do in consequence of their helpless condition, and so they perished in the flames. The men who thus fired the buildings were reported to have said that they wanted revenge for the fate of their burnt comrades.
In the course of our march on Sunday, we encountered no enemy, though in the afternoon the 2nd corps on our right, was hotly and heavily engaged. We halted that evening, about six o'clock near the Vaughn road went into camp, but at 10 o'clock we were routed up and proceeded to Hatcher's Run, reaching there about day light. Here we quietly remained on the west side of the run, while our cavalry and infantry advanced and maneuvered against the enemy. The densely wooded character of the country hereabouts, rendered it very difficult to use artillery on our side, and in fact, during the three days fighting, only six shots were fired by our artillery, to my knowledge, and those were fired by a section of Battery L. on Tuesday afternoon, which, in obedience to orders advanced to the line of our reserve pickets, and threw a few shell into some woods at an unseen battery, eliciting a reply, and the unacceptable fire from hidden rebel sharp-shooters, who blazed away at us with their minnie balls, hitting the carriage wheels, sponge buckets and coming into very close personal proximity. That was no place for rifled guns, especially as not a rebel could be seen, and so we were wisely ordered back into our old position.
But to return to Monday afternoon. The 5th corps troops were driving the enemy finely. Crawford's division was pushing forward vigorously, supported by Griffins and Ayer's divisions and a brigade of the sixth corps. They drove the enemy full two miles from where the Vaughn road crossed the run, and the south side road appeared to begetting within grasping distance. But just here, matters took another turn, our line began to waver, then it broke, a kind of panic seized our troops, caused by our cavalry falling back hastily, through our lines and by the sixth corps troops firing upon our men, and in a few minutes all the ground that had been gained was lost and there was general confusion and disorder. The men were hurrying towards the corduroy bridge crossing Hatcher's run, wagons and ambulances were beating a rapid retreat and in a word, there was " demoralization", and a regular stampede.
Mounted officers and orderlies were hurrying to and fro, Gen. Warren was reported killed or captured and things looked extremely shaky.— Bitterly L had not as yet been ordered into position, but a galloping orderly soon brought orders for us to take position, just about where we were, and "in battery" we quickly went to await the onset of the advancing enemy, with double rounds of canister to each gun. We thought the time had come when the true metal of the battery would be unmistakably told, and what wonder, if there loomed up visions of Libby Prison, Andersonville or Salsbury? Our caissons and army wagons had been ordered across the Run. The latter vehicle, while in transit over the bridge, was lifted up by the demoralized stampeders, and tossed into the stream, mules, driver and all. The wagon was fished out the next morning, a broken concern. We very naturally regretted the wetting and loss of its contents, containing as it did, rations, forage, baggage, &c.
The enemy after breaking our lines and driving our troops, failed to follow his advantages, and in a short time our lines were reformed and a new start was taken from the first starting point. The rebels did not come near enough for us to fire at, and on the reformation of our lines, we advanced to a temporary line of works where we remained in position, with the horses kept in harness every day, until yesterday when we were relieved, as were Battery D and the Massachusetts Battery, by three other batteries of our Brigade. We returned to camp, which is about eight miles from Hatcher's Run. Thus ended one of the severest campaigns for a short one, as to weather, &c., we have experienced for many a month. We are now in the enjoyment of our quarters, snug and comfortable, which took so long to build, but how long we shall tarry here is doubtful.
The 5th Corps (infantry) have not returned to their old quarters, but will occupy the new lines established on the left. The headquarters of the corps have been moved. The batteries of our brigade continue to garrison some of the forts along the 9th Corps. This is one of the beauties of being in the reserve, to be on hand for every movement and afford relief to those at the front.
I suppose, ere long, another attempt will be made to get possession of the South Side Road. Whether this last move was really for that purpose or not I cannot say. I think it was made more for a diversion in favor of Sherman than any thing else, though the alleged original object of the expedition is said to have been the capture of one of the enemy's trains on its way to Wilmington. This was accomplished, or at least forty wagons were captured. We now hold Hatcher's Run, and have built formidable works just this side of that stream, at Vaughn Road crossing. The entire length of our lines from the extreme right to the extreme left must now be in the neighborhood of fifty miles. Of course the enemy's lines are proportionately as long, and yet where is the weak spot in either line, or isn't there any? O ye despised and ridiculed spades of by-gone days, what power and virtue ye do now possess! Where the spade was formerly used in the advance of miles by him who once commanded the Army of the Potomac, it is now used in the advance of yards by the army's present commander, and wisely so used.
Gen. Bragg's Brigade of veteran troops, who fought so heroically in the recent movement—a brigade of Gen. Crawford's Division—started for Baltimore yesterday on business pertaining to the draft, we surmise. By-the-bye, speaking of the draft, we have not heard from our honest appeal made in November last. We are waiting patiently. Come, good, loyal friends of Rochester, come, fill up the ranks, step to the music of the Union, and don't delay for the draft or expend time and money in hunting up substitutes. Give a helping hand to the "peace commissioners" of your heart and choice.

Battery L to be Mustered Out of the Service.
May 30, 1865.
The Orders, disposing of Battery L as one of the batteries of the Volunteer Artillery of the Army of the Potomac, have been issued and published, and in a few days said Battery will cease to be an organization. The Orders referred to were unexpectedly received here this afternoon, and on making them known to the company were received with tumultuous shoutings and cheers, by those members of the company especially who were not included under the recent orders mentioned in my last letter mustering out of service those men whose terms of service expired before October next. Not only are such men to be mustered out and discharged, but all officers and veterans and three years men, no matter when they enlisted or when their terms of service expire, if they belong to the Volunteer Artillery branch of the service of this army, they are to go home. The orders to this effect were promulgated by the War Department of Gen. Meade last evening or this morning, and in obedience to these orders the volunteer batteries of the several corps and of the Reserve have been directed to turn in immediately their batteries, ordnance and ordnance stores at Washington Arsenal, and their public horses and means of transportation at the Quartermaster depot. The organizations will be paid off and mustered out of service in the respective States to which the belong. Those of the 1st N. Y. Artillery will proceed to Elmira, the original place of rendezvous, and it is expected that by Saturday of this week we shall be en route to that place.
The batteries are feeling jubilant enough at the prospect of such a speedy return home.— There is wild enthusiasm in the camps of the Reserve to-night, singing and dancing, torch light processions, and there is a happy time generally. Battery commanders and their clerks are ingrossed in business, making out the necessary papers preparatory to turning in their guns, horses, &c. To-morrow night will probably see us on a "peace footing." The "dogs of war " which Battery L was wont to let loose on the would-be destroyers of the great Republic, have done their work, and they are now about to be chained up with thousands of others like unto them, in the nation's great kennel where are kept these frowning, angry, death-looking, war animals. May the nation never have occasion to turn them loose again, except to celebrate over tidings of peace and joy.
My readers have read all about the grand review. We did not participate in it further than to enjoy a sight of the magnificent spectacle. The Reserve batteries were counted out.
The illumination and torch light procession of last Thursday night, in the Filth Corps, was a grand affair, eclipsing everything of the kind ever gotten up in towns and cities. Myriads of lights were moving and dancing on hill and plain, as far as the eye could reach, presenting a brilliant and gorgeous appearance. It was an impromptu affair, but it couldn't have been improved, had it been long arranged.
The want of time necessitates a brief and dull letter.
G. B.

The Fall of the Confederacy.
April 4, 1865.
" Petersburg is ours! Richmond is evacuated! We have captured twelve thousand prisoners! Lee's army is gone up! The rebellion is played out!" With such and kindred replies your correspondent was greeted on arriving at City Point and inquiring for the news. Was'nt all this intelligence enough to thoroughly electrify a returned Union soldier and officer to the army, and send thrilling through soul and body, emotions of joy to deep for utterance.
Glorious news ! Magnificent news! Halleluiah! Let the people rejoice! Petersburg ours! Richmond ours! Surely, enthusiasm over the consumption of such events, is perfectly allowable whether manifested by speakers or writers, and whose enthusiasm ought to be greater than the men who for nearly nine long, weary, perilous months, kept watch before Petersburg and tried, time and again to take the city, and who for nearly four years, essayed the capture of Richmond! The Herculean labors of the Army of the Potomac, have at last been crowned with success, and the heart of the rebellion has been reached. The "Confederacy" has received its death stroke, and when Europe hears of the fall of Petersburg and Richmond, the Southern Confederacy, which so long and earnestly yearned for "acknowledgement," by European powers, will unquestionably be acknowledged by them, as a failure.
On my way to City Point, up the James, several large transport boats were met, en route to Washington, crowded with prisoners captured in the recent victorious battles of Petersburg. On the wharf at City Point, thousands of more prisoners were guarded awaiting shipment northward. Of course the sight of such vast numbers of the enemy confirmed the reality of the reports pertaining to their capture. Between fifteen and twenty thousand rebels are said to have been captured by our forces during the week's operations which culminated in the fall of Petersburg, and as to the capture of guns their number must exceed one hundred, or not far short of it.
On my arrival at City Point, all was excitement, but of a very joyous and orderly kind. The news promulgated to the passengers arriving in the steamer I took passage in, seemed too good to be true, but it came from such reliable sources, that it was not to be doubted. As to the capture of Petersburg, I soon had the gratification of seeing and visiting the city myself, to which I will refer more particularly before I close my letter. My first inquiry was for Battery L. I saw General Warren at City Point, and immediately accosted him as to the whereabouts of the Fifth Corps. It was under command of General Sheridan, and moving with his cavalry in hot pursuit of Lee's army, north of the Southside Railroad. Not very flattering prospect of reaching the Battery that night, but I must overtake it speedily as possible. General Warren was in command, and is now of the forces at Petersburg and at Bermuda Hundred. His advice was to take the cars and go as far as Meade's Station, eight miles from City Point, and then strike for the Fifth Corps. This station was one of the nearest points to Petersburg, on the City Point railroad running to Hatcher's Run. Before arriving at Meade's Station, a special train was met, conveying President Lincoln to City Point. He was returning from Petersburg. Of course he attracted no little attention from the passengers on our own train. There was no mistaking his face as we saw him seated in the car. It was rumored that he was going to Richmond before returning to Washington.
At Meade's Station I ascertained that Battery L and three other batteries of the Fifth corps were temporarily assigned to the Ninth corps, and had been ever since the preceding Wednesday. They had been engaged in attacking and taking the works in front of the Ninth corps' line in connection with that corps while the Fifth corps, with the remaining five batteries, under Sheridan, was moving around the enemy's right to flank and get in rear of him, which, as my readers will learn from other sources, was most successfully and gloriously done, resulting in the capture of an entire division of Lee's army. I had not far to go, therefore, before I alighted on Battery L, which I found encamped where I am at present writing, about a mile in rear of the Avery House, not far from Forts Morton, Rice, Hell, and other forts adjoining them, that have become so familiarly known since the beginning of the campaign before Petersburg.
Battery L was in position in a work in front of the Avery House, when the attack was made by the Ninth corps on the enemy's forts confronting our own on Sunday morning before daybreak. The firing commenced about one o'clock, but soon after daylight, after quite a spirited attack by our troops, four of the rebel forts fell into our hands, a number of pieces of artillery and two or three hundred prisoners.— Into these captured forts the four gun detachments of Battery L were ordered to advance and work the guns abandoned by the enemy.— This was promptly done, under command of Lieut. Deitz, who, with Lieut. Kinne, led the men on a double quick, exposed to a severe fire of musketry and artillery which the rebels were pouring into the captured works, from forts on either flank and in rear of them.
Arriving at one of the forts, the guns were found manned by others who had proceeded the men of Battery L for the same purpose. They then advanced to another of the captured works, found one gun, but were unable to serve it in consequence of all the gun implements being destroyed. They proceeded to another and found that occupied and manned also. After remaining for a while in this work, and finding the guns efficiently served by other troops, Lieut. Deitz returned with the men to the battery, which, under command of Lieut. Perine, engaged the enemy, whose guns were still directed at our forces in the line of works, wrested from the rebels. The enemy made several endeavors to retake their works, but to no purpose. A desultory firing was kept up till a late hour Sunday night, when Petersburg was evacuated, silently, but not without the Union troops perceiving what was going on. The blaze of fires illuminated the air about Petersburg, which proved to be the conflagration of bridges, tobacco and warehouses, set fire by the rebels in their evacuation of the city. Our forces took possession of the never to be forgotten city of Petersburg immediately after its evacuation, which was formally surrendered at half-past four o'clock, Monday morning, April 3d, by the Mayor and Common Council, with the request for the protection of the persons and property of its inhabitants. This request, I am happy to state, has thus far been acceded to. No real damage of any kind has been committed by our soldiers in any part of the city. The citizens have been treated as it is right they should be, notwithstanding the many hard things which have emenated from them against us "detestable Yankees," with the greatest respect, much, it is reported, to their surprise. There has been but little pillaging or vandalism perpetrated.
Our troops entered the city with banners flying, music playing and the loudest rejoicing.— The citizens appeared to receive them with considerable cordiality, for the reason, perhaps, of their deliverance from impending starvation that seemed to threaten them. There was a general destitution of every kind of subsistence. The colored population turned out in crowds, and their reception of our army was wildly jubilant. They demonstrated their joy in true negro style, with songs and shoutings.
I visited Petersburg last evening with several other officers and saw the city by moonlight. I was agreeably disappointed in finding it, with the exception of that portion immediately in front of our works, very little injured by the rain of shot and shell which our batteries had poured into the city, for so many months. In the south part of the city, near the river, a number of buildings were destroyed, including some public structures, but the greater and most handsome part of the city escaped undamaged. I saw many very beautiful residences, blocks of large stores, some of them with magnificent marble fronts, and the whole city looks more like our northern cities than any place I ever saw before in Virginia. Sycamore street is the principal business street, and nearly all the streets are finely paved. The city is located on a slope of ground descending towards the river environed by hills and with very handsome surroundings. The main road leading into the city from the direction of the Avery House, where the 5th corps formerly had its headquarters, has high banks on either side, and on that side facing the city, I noticed a number of excavations, "gopher holes" so called, which had been made for the protection of the inhabitants from the iron missiles of our guns. Here and there were caves dug in the hills, with openings at the top in the centre, which had the appearance of chimneys. Although the gas works are mostly destroyed, portions of the city were illuminated with gas. The city is supplied with water from a large reservoir situated on a hill. A very pretty cemetery is on the south side of the town, which was exposed to the fire from our batteries in the seige of Petersburg, but it is little injured.
Confederate notes in the city are at an enormous discount, worth about one cent per cord. Corn cob flour, in confederate money in Petersburg, is worth six dollars a quart. Wheat flour twelve hundred dollars a barrel. The price of a shave by colored barbers, only three dollars. All other prices in the same ratio.
I forgot to mention while speaking of the buildings, that I passed the Petersburg Express office which was dimly illuminated, and in possession no longer of the former editor but of an editorial staff who issued from the office yesterday, in Petersburg, for the first time since the commencement of the rebellion, a Union paper, called "Grant's Petersburg Progress." Its editors, assistant editors, foreman and compositors are composed of officers and soldiers. I will enclose you a copy, which is by no means a bad sheet.
But I must close. An order has just come requiring your correspondent to send at daylight to-morrow morning sixty horses from his battery, in charge of twenty men, to the front, to Gen. Wainwright in command of the artillery with the 5th corps. An officer of Gen. W.'s staff is here, who reports that Gen. Sheridan is about thirty miles northwest of Petersburg, a little south of the Appomattox, trying to get the start of Lee and prevent him from going to Lynchburg. This officer says that troops were never moved faster than were those of the 5th corps yesterday. Had it not been that they felt so exultant over their great successes they never could have marched so far and rapidly. The old Fifth corps has covered itself with glory in its brilliant achievements over the enemy.
The batteries moving with the corps are in urgent need of horses, and Battery L, being at rest at present, is called upon to furnish them. We are to be supplied with new horses as soon as they can be had from City Point. I understand that all the batteries which operated in the works in front of Petersburg, or along the 9th corps line, are to be sent to City Point to be held in readiness for any point where most needed. In other words, another Artillery Reserve is to be organized for the Army of the Potomac. We don't like to think of being detached from the Fifth corps, but I suppose soldiers have but little business to think. It is their business to obey and say nothing. That part of the news communicated to me, that "Lee's army is gone up" is not verified yet, but what except almost a miracle can save it? It is composed of brave men, valorous men, but unless they are actuated by desperation, what can they do in the face of their overwhelming reverses and against our troops enthusiastic with victory? Their capital is gone. There government is without a " local habitation or a name." What wait the Southern people, and the Southern armies for now? We have an answer, but never mind.
As expected, Battery L is now about a mile and a half from City Point, constituting for the time being, one of the twenty batteries of the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Potomac under command of Major Theodore Miller of the 1st Penn. Artillery Regiment. The Reserve is divided into four brigades, consisting of five batteries each. Our Brigade is the 2d, consisting of Batteries "L," "E," "C " and "G," 1st N. Y. Artillery, and Battery "E," 5th Mass., commanded by Brevet Major Charles Phillips of the Mass. Battery. How long this Reserve organization will last, or how long we shall remain here, is uncertain. We are almost persuaded that the fighting days of Battery L are ended, or nearly so, but we are by no means over-sanguine on this point.
The fortunes of war are very capricious, and the Southern Confederacy, or what is left of it, may struggle along for some time to come, so long as it can keep a respectable army in the field. It is thought by some military men that Lee will push with all the army he can gather, for the west banks of the Mississippi and make a stand in Texas, enter into an alliance with Maximilian and get up a war with France with our government. This may seem a very wild and absurd idea, but as long as Gen. Lee does not surrender and can keep together any kind of a force, what can he do and where can he go? It is useless to speculate on the matter, however. Let us hope that the restoration of Peace Union will soon be ours to rejoice over.
The address of Battery L, is now,"2d Brigade, Artillery Reserve, City Point, Va.

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New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History
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