39th Infantry Regiment
Garibaldi Guard; Italian Legion; Netherland Legion; Polish Legion;
Hungarian Regiment; First Foreign Rifles.
Mustered in: May 28, 1861
Mustered out: July 1, 1865
The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion,
3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment, raised by the Union Defense Committee
of New York city, under special authority from the War Department, was accepted
by the State May 27, 1861;
organized and recruited at New York city under Col. Frederick George D'Utassy,
and mustered in the service of the United States for three years at Washington,
D. C., June 6, 1861, to date from May 28, 1861. Three companies consisted
three of Hungarians, one of Swiss, one of Italians, one of Frenchmen, and one
of Spaniards and Portuguese. May 31, 1863, the regiment was consolidated
into four companies: A, B, C and D; new companies were organized in the field
recruits: E December 8; F December 14; G December 19; H December 30, 1863;
K in January, 1864. Companies A, B, C and D were mustered out in New York city
June 24, 1864, those not entitled to be discharged having previously been
transferred to other companies; and the regiment, six companies, E, F, G, H,
I and K, retained
in service. In October, 1864, a new Company D, enlisted principally at Malone
for one year, joined the regiment; June 2, 1865, the members of the regiment
to be mustered out with it were transferred to the 185th Infantry.
left the State May 28, 1861; served at and near Washington, D. C., from June
1, 1861; in the 1st Brigade, 5th Division, Army of Northeastern Virginia,
from July 13, 1861; in Blenker's Brigade, Division of Potomac, from August 4,
1861; in Stahel's Brigade, Blenker's Division, Army of the Potomac, from October
15, 1861; in 1st Brigade, same division, Mountain Department, from April, 1862;
in White's Brigade, Army of Virginia, at Winchester, Va., from July, 1862;
Harper's Ferry, W. Va., from September, 1862; at Camp Douglass, Chicago, Ill.,
from September 27, 1862; near Washington, D.C., 1st Brigade, Casey's Division,
defenses of Washington, from December, 1862; in January, 1863, in 3d Brigade,
Casey's, later Abercrombie's Division, 22d Corps; in 3d Brigade, 3d Division,
2d Corps, Army of the Potomac, from June 25, 1863; in the 3d, and for a time
the Consolidated, Brigade, 1st Division, 2d Corps, Army of the Potomac, from
March, 1864; and was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Augustus
July I, 1865, except (new) Company D, which had been mustered out, June 7, 1865,
at Alexandria, Va.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in
action, 5 officers, 62 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 3 officers,
49 enlisted men; of
disease and other causes, 1 officer, 158 enlisted men; total, 9 officers, 269
enlisted men; aggregate, 278; of whom 1 officer and 99 enlisted men died in
hands of the enemy.
The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military
affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the
Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers.
Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Thirty-ninth Infantry.—Cols., Frederick G. D'Utassy, Augustus Funk;
Lieut.-Cols., Alexander Repetti, Charles Schwartz, James G. Hughes, John
McE. Hyde, David A. Allen; Majs., Charles Wiegand, Anton Vekey, Charles
Schwartz, Hugo Hillebrandt, Charles C. Baker, John McE. Hyde, David A.
Allen, Charles H. Ballou. The 39th, the "Garibaldi Guard," recruited
in New York city, was composed of three Hungarian companies, three German,
one Swiss, one Italian, one French, one Spanish and one Portuguese, most
of whose members had already seen active service. It was mustered into
the U. S. service at New York, May 28, 1861, for three years and left the
state for Washington on the same day. Camp Grinnell was established near
Alexandria and occupied until July 17, when the 39th participated in the
movement of the army toward Manassas with the 1st brigade, 5th division,
though in the battle of Bull Run the regiment was but slightly engaged.
After a few weeks at Alexandria much ill feeling prevailed over the failure
to receive some expected privileges and 50 members of Co. G mutinied, but
returned to the command after being disciplined by arrest and imprisonment.
Until November it was encamped near Roach's mills, when winter quarters
were established at Hunter's Chapel. The brigade, originally commanded
by Gen. Blenker, was in the spring of 1862 commanded by Gen. Stahel and
served in Blenker's division of Sumner's corps. In April, 1862, the division
was assigned to Gen. Fremont's command and joined his forces May 11, taking
part in the engagements near Strasburg and at Cross Keys. On June 26 the
39th was assigned to the 1st brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps of the army
under Gen. Pope, and encamped at Middletown, Va., during July and August.
The regiment shared in the disaster at Harper's Ferry in Sept., 1862, and
in the surrender 530 of its members fell into the hands of the enemy, but
were paroled and proceeded to Camp Douglas, Chicago. They were exchanged
in November, returned to Washington and established winter quarters at
Centerville, where the regiment was assigned to the 3d brigade, Casey's
division, 3d corps in Jan., 1863. In June, 1863, it became part of the
3d brigade, 3d division, 2d corps, and moved to Gettysburg, where it fought
valiantly in the front of the left center, with a loss of 95 killed and
wounded, the brigade losing six field officers killed or seriously wounded.
Three battle flags were captured by the 39th, a Mass. battery was recaptured,
and the regiment received official commendation for its valor. Moving southward
with the army, the regiment encountered the enemy at Auburn ford and Bristoe
Station in October; participated in the Mine Run campaign; went into winter
quarters at Brandy Station, where in Dec., 1863, four new companies were
received; in Jan., 1864, two others were added to the regiment, which had
been previously consolidated into a bat-talion of four companies. In February
it was active at Morton's ford; was assigned in March to the 3d brigade,
1st division, 2nd corps; shared in the Wilderness campaign, being active
at the Wilderness, at Todd's tavern, the Po river, Spottsylvania, the North
Anna, Totopotomoy and Cold Harbor. On June 25, 1864, the origi-nal members
not reenlisted were mustered out at New York city, the remainder of the
regiment was left in the field and moved with the Army of the Potomac to
Petersburg. Seven companies, known as the 39th battalion, were assigned
to the consolidated brigade, 2nd corps, and were engaged at Petersburg,
Deep Bottom, at Reams' station, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, and in
the final assault on the Petersburg fortifications April 2, 1865. The battalion
then joined in the pursuit of Lee's army and performed various routine
duties in the vicinity of Richmond until July I, 1865, when it was mustered
out at Alexandria. The 39th lost during its term of serv-ice 119 by death
from wounds, and 159 by death from accident, imprisonment or disease, of
whom 94 died in prison.
Battles and Casualties
Table from Phisterer
Civil War Newspaper Clippings
Historical Sketch from the 3rd Annual Report of the Bureau of Military Statistics
Monument at Gettysburg
Captain Carlos Alvarez de la Mesa Collection.
39th Battle Flag
This is meant to be a comprehensive list. If, however, you know of a resource that is not listed below, please send an email to email@example.com with the name of the resource and where it is located. This can include photographs, letters, articles and other non-book materials. Also, if you have any materials in your possession that you would like to donate, the museum is always looking for items specific to New York's military heritage. Thank you.
Aikey, Michael. "The Flamboyant Garibaldi Guards." America's
Civil War. (May 1995) pp. 54-60.
Bacarella, Michael. Lincoln's Foreign Legion:
The 39th New York Infantry, The Garibaldi Guard. Shippensbury, PA:
White Mane Publishing Company, 1996.
Cassani, Emanuele. Italiani nella Guerra Civile americana,
1861-1865. Civitavecchia, Roma: Prospettiva, 2006.
Catalfamo, Catherine. The Thorny Rose: The Americanization
of an Urban, Immigrant, Working Class Regiment in the Civil War. A Social History
of the 39th New York Volunteer Infantry. The University of Texas at Austin,
1989. Ph.D. Thesis.
Now available online.
D'Utassy, Frederick George. Papers, 1861 Mar.-1863 June.
Description: 3 boxes (ca. 1,300 items)
Language: English; In English, German, Hungarian, French, and Italian.
Abstract: Correspondence, bills, receipts, and papers relating to his activities
while commanding the 39th Infantry, N.Y.S.V. (ca. 1,300 items), mostly letters
to him from other officers and friends. Many letters in German and other European
languages. Correspondents include Mahlon D. Sands, Chaplain Anthony P. Zyla,
Capt. Francis Takats, Theodore Talbot, Maj. L.W. Tinelli, Maj. Charles Wiegand,
Lt. Alexandro Biscaccianti, J. Batory, Mrs. B.G. Bacon, Capt. John C. Gittermann,
Mrs. E. von Hafften, Miss F. De Winton, and others.
Note(s): Bio/History: Colonel and commanding officer of the "Garibaldi Guard",
39th Infantry, New York Volunteers. "Count" D'Utassy, as he styled
himself in New York society, raised this group of foreign nationals to fight
for the Union and was court-martialed for incompetency as a soldier in 1863.
General Info: Access: open to qualified researchers at The New-York Historical
Society./ This collection is owned by The New-York Historical Society. Permission
to publish materials must be obtained in writing from the Library Director of
The New-York Historical Society, 170 Central Park West, New York, NY 10024./
Organization: Arranged in chronological order./ Partial index available in repository.
Field, Ron. "Garibaldi's American Legion." Military
N128 (September 1998) pp. 28-33.
Hoyt family. Hoyt family papers, 1828-1956.
Description: 2.1 cubic ft.; volumes; map case items.
Abstract: Scrapbooks, diaries, account books, address books, and other notebooks
(40 volumes); correspondence, typescripts, notes, photographs and albums, diplomas
and commissions, bills and receipts, newspaper clippings, and miscellaneous papers
of Charles S. Hoyt of Potter, his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick
Burroughs Smith of New York City, Clinton, and Utica, New York, and letters and
scrapbooks of his other children, Charles S. Hoyt, Jr. and Agnes Barnum Hoyt;
the correspondence, diaries, scrapbooks, and other papers of Charles S. Hoyt,
Sr., relate to his activities as surgeon with the 126th and 39th Regiments, New
York Volunteers, with whom he served in Maryland and Virginia during the Civil
War; as New York State Assemblyman from Yates County (1853, 1867); and as secretary
of the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities (1869+). Mrs. Jean Broughton
Hoyt Smith's correspondence, manuscripts, scrapbooks, and other papers pertain
to her training as a nurse at Bellevue Hospital (1902), her profession as an
interior decorator, and other matters. Also, originals or copies of several letters
to various members of the Hoyt family from or about Franklin Benjamin Sanborn
and Charles James Folger, and a number of letters to Confederate soldiers from
relatives and friends in Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee, and Florida describing
conditions in the South as it was beset by Union forces.
Access: Materials specified: Finding aidLink to external web site
General Info: Guide available. Preferred citation: Hoyt Family papers, #1812.
Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
Künstler, Mort. The High water mark, Gettysburg July
3, 1863. [Oyster Bay, N.Y. ], American Spirit Publishing, 1988.
Description: 1 art print : lithograph, col. ; 25 x 29 cm.
Abstract: This lithograph shows a scene from the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg
in 1863. The picture includes the Union troops behind the stone wall during Pickett's
Charge, along with the Angle, copse of trees, and Big and Little Round Top. Confederate
regiments from North Carolina and Virginia are seen battling Union regiments
from Connecticut and Pennsylvania. According to Künstler, it shows the moment
when the Confederates start to retreat. The work was created to commemorate the
125th Anniversary of the battle.
Note: Publisher's website.
Note(s): Paper./ Image area measured in frame./ Bio/History: Mort Künstler
has been painting images of the Civil War for over twenty years. He studied art
at Brooklyn College, UCLA, and the Pratt Institute, and was an illustrator with
National Geographic. Like many historical artists, Künstler works closely
with historians to learn more about whatever subject is being painted at that
time. His art has been featured in many television shows and books.
Marraro, Howard R. "Lincoln's Italian Volunteers
from New York." New York History vXXIV n1 (January 1943) 57-67.
Muster roll collection, 1775-1876.
Description: 1.2 linear feet (4 boxes, 1 oversize)
Abstract: Muster rolls, 1775-1876, including significant numbers from the Revolutionary
War and the Civil War. The Revolutionary War material contains a few returns
of clothing and receipts of stores, as well as muster rolls for the Royal Americans,
regiments of artillery, and regiments from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina,
and Rhode Island. Civil War material consists of muster rolls for the 7th, 39th,
52nd, and 57th Regiments of New York State Volunteers, with a few other miscellaneous
papers. There are also muster rolls for the 6th, 9th, 11th, 55th, 71st, 84th
and 96th regiments of the New York State National Guard, from 1866 to 1876.
General Info: Access: open to qualified researchers at the New-York Historical
Society./ This collection is owned by the New-York Historical Society. Permission
to publish materials must be obtained in writing from the Library Director of
the New-York Historical Society, Two West 77th Street, New York, NY 10024.
Pellicano, John M. Conquer of Die: The 39th New York
Volunteer Infantry Garibaldi Guard. Flushing, NY: 1996.
Schurz, Carl, and Ludwig Knoth. Papers, 1841-1906.
Description: 3.0 c.f. (5 archives boxes, 1 flat box, 6 volumes) and. 2 reels
of microfilm (35mm)
Abstract: Papers touching upon the Wisconsin connections of Carl Schurz, a German "forty-eighter" who
came to Watertown, Wis., in 1855, and on his public career as a Liberal Republican
leader, journalist, and cabinet member. Correspondence includes originals and
copies of letters to his family in Germany describing his participation in the
revolutionary movement of 1848-1849, his exile, and his decision to come to America;
photostatic copies from the Library of Congress of letters received by Schurz
from men of Wisconsin connections, 1857-1861; copies of letters from the Hayes
Memorial Library, written by Schurz to President Hayes, 1867-1887; letters by
Schurz, 1889-1906, to Mrs. Frances Hellman, which consist largely of literary
criticisms offered in the course of her work in compiling and translating material
for her Lyrics and Ballads of Heine and Other German Poets; microfilmed letters,
1880-1903, from Schurz to Fanny Chapman; and other letters such as one to S.
J. Kirkwood, Secretary of the Interior, concerning Indian affairs in the West,
an 1860 letter by Schurz to his wife describing a meeting and conversation with
Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, Illinois, the previous day, and a copy of a letter,
1849, to a friend in Germany in which Schurz discussed America. Many of the letters
are in German, some with English translations. Also present is the original manuscript
of Schurz's four-volume Life of Henry Clay; an address at the funeral of William
Steinway; one volume written in German by Dr. Ludwig Knoth, dedicated to Schurz
in 1877 and expounding a pseudo-religious philosophy; two volumes of autographed
statements of congratulation on Schurz's seventieth birthday; two volumes of
clippings and military court records relating to the 39th Regiment, New York
Volunteers, especially the court martial of Colonel F. G. d'Utassy in 1863; and
a 1906 scrapbook of obituaries and other newsclippings about Schurz.
References: English translations of Schurz's letters to Germany were published
in Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869 (Madison, 1928), edited by Joseph
General Info: Restricted: Permission to publish, in full or in part, the letters
to Fanny Chapman, must be obtained from the Library at the Universitats-Bibliothek,
Muenster, Westfalen, Germany; also, a copy of any publication using the letters
must be furnished to the library./ Original or duplicate materials: The originals
of the Chapman letters are in the manuscript collection at the Universitats-Bibliothek,
Muenster, Westfalen, Germany./ Shelf list card./ Parts presented by: Mrs. John
Downes, Chicago, Ill., 1963 and 1977; Frances Hellman, Jan. 18, 1933; C. A. Evans,
Dec. 6, 1933; Clara Leiser, Nov. 30, 1932, and Jan. 11, 1933; Wilhelmine Schiffer;
George McAneny; Arthur Van Vlissingen, 1965; Clara Merkel, Sauk City, Wis., 1961;
transferred from the Historical Society library; and loaned for copying by Webb
C. Hayes, Fremont, Ohio. Chapman film purchased in 1958.
Soldiers memorial Company I, 39th regt. New York volunteers.
Washington, D. C.: C. G. Case, R. G. Walrad [and] B. C. Baker, c1863. ilIus.
56 1/2 X 46cm. Lith of Sarony, Major & Knapp, New York.
Todd, Frederick P. "39th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
(Garibaldi Guard), 1861-1862." Military Collector and Historian.
Waring, George Edwin. "The Garibaldi guard." The
first book of the Authors club, liber
scriptorum (1893) 568-75.
Waud, Alfred R. Surrender
of the revolting Garibaldi Guards to the U.S. Cavalry.
Description: 1 drawing on olive paper : pencil, Chinese white, and black ink
wash ; 18.6 x 27.2 cm. (sheet)
In: Civil War drawing collection at the Library of Congress
Standard No: LCCN: 2004-660019
Access: Materials specified: color film copy transparencyLink to external
web site http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g05172
Note(s): Signed lower left: A.R. Waud./ Title inscribed on verso./ Dated
derived from text in NYIN.
General Info: No known restrictions on publication./ Forms part of: Civil
War drawing collection.; Published with descriptive text in: New York Illustrated
News, July 22 1861, with caption: Surrender of mutineers of the Garibaldi
Original located at the Library of Congress.
Lloyd, Mark, and Michael Codd (Illustrator).
Combat uniforms of the Civil War. Volume one, The Federal Army. Philadelphia
: Chelsea House Publishers, 1999.
Material Type: Pre-adolescent
Items in the museum collection are in bold.
Back to Civil War Infantry Regiments
New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History
January 25, 2018