41st Regiment, New York Volunteers
Civil War Newspaper Clippings
MOVEMENTS OF THE MILITARY.
ARRIVAL OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
This fine regiment, from New York city, numbering 1,050 men, arrived here at
four o'clock yesterday afternoon. This regiment probably comprises a greater
number of officers and men who have seen more service on the battlefield, than
any which has yet arrived here. Of the thirty-three officers in the regiment,
twenty three have already been under fire; and the proportion will probably
hold good for the privates, a large portion of them having been actively engaged
in the Prussian army against the Danes, from 1848 to 1851.
Their uniform is that of the Prussian rifles, dark green tunics faced with
red, grey pants with red stripes, and dark green caps with red facings. The
uniform of company A is that of the original Turcos, consisting of dark blue
jacket, (braided with red,) and pantaloons with yellow and black leggings
the Turcos, the blue sash, red fez, and blue tassel. They are armed with the
Springfield musket, which they hope to exchange for the Minie rifle before
going into active service. Their camp equipage is complete throughout.
They are accompanied by a fine regimental band of twenty-five pieces, and a
drum corps of twenty pieces. As the regiment marched up Pennsylvania
avenue on their way to their quarters, it attracted much attention by the regular
marching and true soldierly bearing of the men. The following is a correct
list of the officers:
Colonel, Leopold Von Gilsa.
Lieutenant colonel, Emil Duysing.
Major, Ernest Von Holmstedt.
Adjutant, Otto Kleinschmidt.
Quartermaster, Francis Braulich.
Surgeon, Dr. Samuel Brilliantowski.
Assistant surgeon, Dr. Robert Thomaln.
Sergeant major, Rudolph Peterson.
Quartermaster sergeant, Bernhard Keppelmann.
Commissary sergeant, Paul Bernhard.
Hospital steward, Ernest Vogel.
Drum major, Carl Denniger.
Band master, William Bruns.
Company A—Captain, Adolphus Weiss; first lieutenant, Clemens Knipschelo;
second lieutenant, Adalbert Schoenherr.
Company B—Captain, Otto Sibeth; first lieutenant, Edward Neuss; second
lieutenant, W. Von Stuelpnagel.
Company C—Captain, Theodore Bracklow; first lieutenant, Ernest Hirschfeld;
second lieutenant, Arthur Trainer.
Company D—Captain, Fred. Menshausen; first lieutenant, C. F. M. Schumacker;
second lieutenant, R. McNadier.
Company E—Captain, H. Detteo Von Einscedel; first lieutenant, C. E. Erdt;
second lieutenant, C. Herzog.
Company F—Captain, Adalbert Von Morozovicz; first lieutenant, Max Cohnheim;
second lieutenant, Ferd. Muller.
Company G—Captain, F. Meyer; first lieutenant, August Scholz; second
lieutenant, G. Heinrichs.
Company H—Captain, John F. Bauer; first lieutenant, George Fass; second
lieutenant, C. Voelcker.
Company I—Captain, John D. Krehbiel; first lieutenant, G. A. Von Mechow;
second lieutenant, John Brueck.
Company K—Captain, W. F. Papemeyer; first lieutenant, Chas. Wellenan;
second lieutenant, Chas. Bangs.
DE KALB REGIMENT.
This regiment formed into line between Eighth and Ninth-avenues. It is composed
entirely of Germans, and for stalwart appearance it compares favorably with
any other regiment in the City. All the officers, commissioned or non-commissioned,
have served in the German army. The regiment paraded yesterday, 780 men;
by Monday it is supposed they will number 1,040. Col. L. Von Gilsa is at
present in command; beyond this neither Field nor Staff officers have been
elected. Annexed are the line officers:
Company A—Captain, Duysing; First-Lieutenant, A. Weiss; Second-Lieutenant,
Company B—Captain, Sieberth; First-Lieutenant, Weiss.
Company C—Captain, Backlow; First-Lieutenant, Huschfield; Second-Lieutenant,
Company D—Captain, Menghausen; First-Lieutenant, Schoomacker, Second-Lieutenant,
Company E—Captain, Enisiedel; First-Lieutenant, Eidt; Second-Lieutenant,
Company F—Captain, Holmstedt; First-Lieutenant, Morosowiz; Second-Lieutenant,
Company G—Captain, Myer; First-Lieutenant, Saholy; Second-Lieutenant,
Company H—Captain, Bauer; First-Lieutenant, Faas; Second-Lieutenant,
Company I—Captain, Krehbrel; First-Lieutenant, Mechow; Second-Lieutenant,
Company K—Captain, Papemeyer; First-Lieutenant, Parpart; Second-Lieutenant,
The right and left companies are Zouaves, and their uniform consists of a fez,
black jacket and pantaloons trimmed with red, light blue sash, white gaiters,
and yellow leggings laced with black patent leather. How the remaining companies
are to be uniformed has not yet been decided upon. This corps will be armed
with the Minie rifle. An election for field and staff-officers will take place
THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
Dr. Samuel Brilliantowski is the surgeon and not the assistant surgeon of the
De Kalb regiment, as stated in Sunday's edition.
DEATH OF ONE OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.--A
member of the De Kalb Regiment, attached to Company K, who left this city for
Washington on Monday afternoon, died soon after reaching Elizabethport, N.
J. The body was brought back on the steamer Kill Von Kull, and placed under
a shed on Pier No. 2, N. R. No one acquainted with deceased accompanied the
remains, and consequently his name and former
residence are unknown. A physician's certificate, however, which was forwarded,
set forth that the unfortunate soldier's death was the result of drinking copiously
of ice-water while overheated, during his march through the City of New York,
July 8, 1861. Coroner Jackman was called to hold an inquest, but there was
no evidence touching the death of deceased except what was embraced in the
certificate. The remains were conveyed to Bellevue Hospital for identification.
Deceased was about 22 years of age, and evidently a native of Germany. (July
THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
By the hands of R.A. Witthaus, Esq., I hereby thankfully acknowledge the receipt
of the following, viz:—
James M. McLean, President, check for seven hundred and fifty dollars, with
the kind remark: "For the benefit of the DeKalb regiment, for their valuable
services in saving and protecting property at the late fire of the Third Avenue
Railroad depot," for the following insurance companies:—
Citizens Fire Ins. Co. ...$50 Park Fire Ins. Co....$50
Niagara " " 50 Astor " " 50
Pacific " " 50 Brooklyn " " 50
People's " " 50 Excelsior " " 50
National " " 50 Hope " " 50
Irving " " 50 Hanover " " 50
Commercial " 50 Rutgers " " 50
New York Fire and Marine Insurance Company... 50
From the directors of the Third Avenue Railroad Company,
by Samuel B Isaacs, secretary, the following:—
Resolved, That the thanks of this company are eminently
due to the officers and privates of the De Kalb regiment, New York Volunteers,
now quartered in Landmann's Hotel, on the Third avenue, for their frank, generous
and gallant conduct in saving a considerable portion
of their property, and their humanity in rescuing the horses at the late conflagration
of their depot and stables, which were totally destroyed, and they herewith
tender to the regiment the freedom of passage on their line of
road so long as they remain in the city.
By the hands of R. A. Whitthaus, Esq., the following
Christian G. Gunther ...$50 N.Y. Belt'g & Mfg. Co…....$50
Aug. Weismann ........…50 Camp, Brunson & Cherry ....25
LEOPOLD VON GILSA,
Colonel of De Kalb regiment.
THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
ONE THOUSAND WELL-EQUIPPED GERMANS READY FOR SERVICE.
The De Kalb Regiment, exclusively composed of Germans, is encamped at Conrad's
and Landmann's Parks, in this city. It numbers over one thousand
men, all of whom are well-equipped and in a good state of discipline. Partly
owing to its separate existence, having no place among our volunteer
militia, and no numerical designation of any kind in any service, this regiment
has been comparatively little known to the public.
The life of the soldiers at Conrad's Park is a daily picnic—a continual
holiday scene. Having all the surroundings which grace the festivals so agreeable
to the taste of our German population, they seem to enjoy to the utmost extent
the combination of their national peaceful pleasures with their preparations
The men have no tents nor regular barracks, but substantial and comfortable
wooden buildings are fitted up with long rows of straw beds and blankets,
which make at this season the most comfortable, sleeping arrangements that
could be devised.
There are no mess rooms. The soldiers take their meals on week days upon a
platform, extending to the East river, shaded partly by an awning and partly
by the foliage of overhanging trees. The officers occupy the tables after the
privates. On Sunday, tables on another part of the park are used, and these
stand upon the bare "footstool," under the shadow of a few straggling
The food is of excellent quality and plentiful. It is served to the soldiers
by waiters carrying plates upon trays, after the manner, if not with the same
ceremony, with which the service is performed in ordinary saloons. It is not
uncommon for the wives of the soldiers to dine with them.
The men are hardy young Germans, scarcely any of them exceeding thirty years
of age, and at least seven hundred of the thousand have seen service in
the armies of Europe. The first company—the "De Kalb Zouaves," was
the nucleus of the regiment, and was enrolled in this city before the war
commenced. Soon after, nine other companies, seven of which enlisted in New
York, one in Philadelphia, and the other in Newark, New Jersey, made
up the regiment.
UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENTS.
Nearly all the men have their uniforms, and enough more are at hand for the
remainder. The coat is dark green trimmed with red, and the pantaloons
are gray cloth. The uniform fits neatly, and is serviceable and handsome. The
Zouave company are dressed in black with red trimmings, wear a blue sash around
the waist, and on their heads the original fez-cap. The knapsacks and other
accoutrements are on the ground and the regiment, when it receives the expected
rifles, will be ready to march. Orders are expected during the present week.
Nearly all of the commissioned officers hive had experience in the field. Colonel
Von Gilsa, the commander, is the son of a Prussian nobleman, entered a military
school when he was ten years of age, and after passing through various gradations
in the service, joined in the last Polish struggle.
Lieutenant-Colonel Duysing was formerly a lieutenant in the regular artillery
of Hesse-Cassel, and acquitted himself with credit in the war with the
Danes in 1849.
The following is a list of the officers of the regiment:
Colonel—Leopold von Gilsa. Lieutenant-Colonel— Emil Duysing. Major—Ernest
Holmstedt. Adjutant— Otto Kleinschmidt. Quartermaster—Francis Braulik.
Assistant-Surgeon—Dr. Brillantoski. Sergeant-Major—J. Banks. Regimental
Quartermaster-Sergeant –Paul Bernhard.
Company A—(Zouaves)—Captain, A. Weiss; First Lieutenant, C. Kuipschild;
Second Lieutenant, A. Schonherr.
Company B—Captain, O. Sibeth; First Lieutenant, E. Neuss; Second Lieutenant,
A. Von Stulphagel.
Company C—Captain, T. Bracklow; First Lieutenant, E. Hirshfeld; Second
Lieutenant, A Trainer.
Company D—Captain, F. Menshausen; First Lieutenant, C. F. M. Schumaker;
Second Lieutenant, R. Mcnadier.
Company E—Captain, D. Von Einsidel; First Lieutenant, E. C. Erdt; Second
Lieutenant, C. Herzog.
Company F—Captain, A. Von Morozoriev; First Lieutenant, M. Cohnheim;
Second Lieutenant, F. Mailer.
Company G—Captain, F. Meyer; First Lieutenant, A. Scholz ; Second Lieutenant,
Company H—Captain, F. Bauer; First Lieutenant, G. Faas; Second Lieutenant,
Company I--Captain, J. Khrebiel; First Lieutenant, A. Von Mechow; Second Lieutenant,
Company K—Captain, W. Papemeyer; First Lieutenant, E. Parpart; Second
Lieutenant, C. Wellenan.
EXPECTED DEPARTURE OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
This command, being now thoroughly armed and equipped, are expecting to receive
final marching orders every moment. On Wednesday Col. Von Gilsa received
the remainder of the muskets from the general government, and is actively
engaged in perfecting his men in the manual of arms. A very important feature
has taken place in the regiment within a day or two, which was the discharge
of about seventy-five men who have families to provide for, in whose places
the Colonel recruited single men. Of this latter class so many are offering
that an entire regiment could easily be organized in about one week's time.
Yesterday every one of the forty officers was presented with a splendid revolver
by R. A. Witthaus, Esq., who also attended to the purchasing of the horses
for the field and staff officers. The regiment will leave either on
Saturday or Monday certain. The various German societies, including the New
York Liederkranz, are actively engaged to arrange an escort to the troops.
On the day of the departure the De Kalb regiment will receive an
ovation second only to that of the Twentieth regiment Turner Rifles.
In the afternoon, when the fire broke out at the depot of the Third Avenue
Railroad, Colonel Von Gilsa caused the long roll to be beaten, and in less
than five minutes the battalion of five hundred men, quartered at the Hamilton
Park, opposite the depot, was drawn up in line, when they were marched in "double-quick",
to the scene of conflagration. The commandant set the example of heroism by
pulling off his coat, calling upon his men to follow him. The first move made
was to save the horses—upwards of one thousand being inside the burning
edifice. After the entire lot was rescued, the sars, harness, and in fact everything
moveable incide of the depot, was taken out by the valiant troops. Never before
did any one man act as gallantly as the brave Colonel Von Gilsa. To his almost
superhuman exertions, and those under him, the Third Avenue Railroad Company
owe the preservation of their property. The horses, cars, &c., were rescued
almost before the firemen arrived on the ground. The Zouaves belonging to the
regiment, learning that the fire was in so close a proximity to their comrades,
started from their rendezvous, at the Yorkville Park, and were soon at the
scene of destruction. Their services, however, were not brought into requisition.
The greatest praise is due to the De Kalb regiment for the promptness with
which they responded to the call for their assistance, and if they display
such valor (which undoubtedly they will) at a fire of grape and cannister,
as they evinced in rushing into a burning building to save property, they will
earn laurels for their chivalry.
At nine o'clock the officers of the regiment, by special invitation, attended
the Lieder Kranz at Pythagoras Hall, in Canal street, where a general good
time was had. Songs, toasts and good dinner were the order of proceedings,
and it was not until a late hour the party separated. This association, of
which Colonel Von Gilsa is a member, presented him with a superb sabre, as
a mark of the esteem in which he is held by his associates; at the same time
the regiment received the elegant banners from Mr. Witthaus. Colonel Max
Weber, of the Turner rifles, is likewise a member of the Lieder Kranz, as also
a number of lieutenant colonels, majors and captains. The concert last evening
was conducted by about one hundred ladies and gentlemen singers,
and passed off with great eclat.
GENERAL CITY NEWS.
A RETURNED HEROINE.—About two years ago, Mrs. Mary Seizgle left this
City for the seat of war, with the Forty-first regiment New-York Volunteers,
of which her husband was a member. She returned on Saturday night last, dressed
in a soldier's uniform. The Police took her into custody, under the act which
forbids a woman to walk the streets in male apparel. She was taken to the Twenty-seventh
Precinct Station-house, where it was satisfactorily shown that she had lost
all of her clothing in the late battles of Gettysburg, and that she had no
other alternative but to put on a soldier's uniform. It further appeared that
during her two years' absence she has rendered herself very useful as hospital
THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
This fine regiment, Col. Leopold Von Gilsa, held a parade yesterday, and were
presented with flags. The presentations took place at the residence of Mr.
R. A. Witthaus in Thirty-fourth street. Hon. George Bancroft, the historian,
members of the Union Defense Committee, and others were present. A regimental
standard, American flag, and set of guide colors were presented, the regimental
flag bearing the inscription: "The generous stranger who left his home
to water with his blood the tree of our liberty;" also the closing couplet
of the "Star-spangled Banner." Mrs. Witthaus made the presentations
with some remarks, closing as follows:
But while as instruments in the hands of an avenging God, you go forth to punish
and subdue those who, for their own selfish ends, would sacrifice our
country, forget not that that same God is also the God of mercy, and as you
are his soldiers in battle, so are you also his instruments in the protection
innocence and helplessness, and your efforts may preserve unto us many, who,
when these sad troubles shall have passed away, will gladly return like the
prodigal of old to the protection of that time-honored flag under whose folds
we have become so prosperous a nation. Take then this flag, which I entrust
to your hands with unbounded confidence, and feeling certain as I do
that it can only return with you from victory, I shall await with anxious heart
that happy day. Hoping to meet you again, most if not all of you, in our country's
name for the love which you show for it is thus going forth to its rescue,
when alas, some of its own misguided members seek to destroy it,
becoming, as you will then have done, doubly its sons; sons by adoption, and
noble sons, as were our forefathers, who periled their lives, as you are now
about to do, in its defense. May God watch over you and crown your efforts
with success, so that future generations may honor your names even as we do
theirs, and may our flag again wave in triumph and peace over every portion
of our beloved country.
Mr. Fredrick Kapp, in behalf of the Liederkranz Society, of which he is president,
presented the colonel with a splendid sword, sash and belt, with
an appropriate speech. Hon. George Bancroft then introduced Miss Witthaus,
the fair donor of the regimental standard, after which Mr. Witthaus made a
speech from which we make the following selection:
Officers and soldiers. I see many among you who have left honorable positions
of trust and emolument in order to oppose the enemies of our adopted country,
and I sincerely hope, when peace is once again restored, and you have placed
the wreath of victory upon the brow of the country you have wedded, that many
years of honor and prosperity may be the blessings kind Providence will have
in store for you. Colonel Leopold von Gilsa, I now close in presenting, in
the name of my children, this standard and
guides to the De Kalb Regiment; may they prove to each patriotic heart a beacon
in the battle-field; may your regiment honor them, guard them and protect them,
and when victors, remind them of mercy and humanity; and when the curtain of
peace rises, and the .........have disappeared, may the banner of De Kalb fraternize
with the glorious flag of the stars and stripes in its full and undiminished
constellation, and may the names of De Kalb and Von Gilsa be proud of each
Songs were then sung, and the regiment returned to their quarters in high spirits.
They expect to be ordered to the South soon.
DEPARTURE OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
The De Kalb Regiment, Col. Leopold von Gilsa, of which we published some particulars
yesterday, took its departure for Washington last evening.
At 3 1/2 o'clock, yesterday afternoon, the regiment started on their weary
march from Hamilton Park to Pier No. 2 North River, a distance of about five
miles. At 7 1/2 o'clock the regiment gained the pier, and embarked
on the steamboat Kill van Kull. At 8:10 o'clock precisely the steamer sailed
from the pier for Elizabethport, en route for Washington, via Harrisburg, on
the New-Jersey Central Railroad. All the men were in excellent spirits, and,
as they left, cheered their friends on shore vociferously.
THE REGIMENT DE KALB.
This regiment, which left New York three years ago for the seat of war, returned
on Saturday in the Fulton, from Hilton Head. The command, which originally
numbered over a thousand men, returns with 327 men, and the
following officers: Colonel Leop. von Gilsa; Surgeon, Dr. Brillantowsky; Assistant
Surgeon, Dr. Sattler; Captains, Knipschild, Heinrichs, Bang and Waugner; Lieutenants,
Stephens, Warnecke, Barneman, Messeller and Griswold. Five hundred and twenty
men, nearly all conscripts are retained at Hilton Head, under Lieut. Col. Von
Einsidel. The regiment was in both battles of Bull Run, Chancellorsville and
Gettysburg and through Fremont's Virginia campaign. The members of the Forty-first
will be received this morning by a committee of Germans, assisted by the Fifth
and Eleventh Regiments New York State Militia, and reviewed by the Mayor in
front of the City Hall.
(New York News, June 20, 1864)
RECEPTION OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
This regiment—the Forty-first New York Volunteers—which arrived
here on Saturday, was tendered a public reception yesterday afternoon by a
large number of its friends. The Fifth Regiment, N. Y. S. N. G., Colonel Louis
Berger, and a large deputation of German citizens, acted as escort. The line
of procession was formed in the Bowery, near Broome street, and the veterans
were escorted to the City Hall Park, where they were joined by the Fifth Regiment.
It was expected that Mayor Gunther would review the men, but this expectation
was not fulfilled, as will be seen by the following communication from the
MAYOR'S OFFICE, New York, June 20.
Colonel Von Gilsa:
DEAR SIR: I regret that imperative duties prevent my waiting beyond the specified
time to give your command an official reception. I regretted exceedingly the
time and occasion that called from this city the fine body of men you commanded,
and I am glad to see back what is left of them, knowing that they will return
to a sphere of usefulness.
With sentiments of esteem, I remain, very truly
yours, C. GODFREY GUNTHER.
After the veterans had been drawn up in single column in front of the City
Hall, Colonel Leopold Von Gilsa, the commandant of the Forty-first, was addressed
by Alderman McMahon, in behalf of the Committee on National
Affairs. The procession then moved up Broadway, and across to No. 104 Bowery,
where the soldiers sat down to a banquet. This regiment returns with about
two hundred men.
(News--June 21, 1864)
RECEPTION OF THE FORTY-FIRST (DE KALB) REGIMENT, N.Y.S.V. The Forty-first
Regiment, N. Y. S. V., better known as the "De Kalb Regiment," which
was recruited in this city, is expected to arrive home in a few days, probably
this week, as their term of service will expire in a day or two. The regiment
is composed of Germans, and their countrymen are making arrangements to give
them a reception. The regiment left the city three years since one thousand
and forty strong, out of which number one hundred and fifty only are expected
to return. Their friends held a meeting on Saturday night at Liberty Garden,
Bowery, at which Capt. Walters presided. Communications were received from
the Fifth and Eleventh Regiment N. Y. S. N. G. offering escorts, and from several
Clubs who offered their services. It is proposed to wind up the reception with
(News--June 13, 1864)
A WARNING TO BULLETIN READERS.—Late on Saturday afternoon, as Mr. Temple
Tibbetts, of Tompkins-street, was engaged in reading a bulletin
containing the war news, in the Bowery, he suddenly felt a strong pull at his
watch-guard. He placed his hand upon his pocket and found his watch gone.
He turned to a young man, named Wilson, and charged him with the theft. The
latter denied the charge most emphatically, but a citizen said to Tibbetts, "Wilson
has your watch in his hand now—I saw him take it from your pocket." Wilson
was searched, and the watch, valued at $75, was recovered from him. Justice
Osborne committed the accused in default of $1,000 bail.
THE DE KALB REGIMENT.
The De Kalb regiment (Colonel Von Gilsa), encamped at Yorkville Park and Landmann's,
expectto march on Wednesday. The men are fully uniformed
and equipped, and lack only arms. Nearly all these volunteers have seen service
SATURDAY EVENING, JUNE 18.
Arrival of the De Kalb Regiment.
This regiment which left our city about 3 years ago for the seat of war with
1040 men, returned this (Saturday) morning in the Fulton, from the South, where
they have been doing duty since August 1863. The command returns with 327 men,
and the following officers:
Colonel, Leop. von Gilsa, Surgeon, Dr. Brillantowsky; Assistant Surgeon, Dr.
Sattler, Captains, Knipschild, Heinrichs, Bang, and Waugner;
Lieutenants Stephans, Warnecke, Barneman, Messelier, and Griswold.
520 men, nearly all conscripts, are retained at Hilton Head, under Lieutenant-Colonel
Von Einsidel. The regiment was in both battles of Bull
Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, all through Fremont's Virginia campaign.
The members of the 41st will be received on Monday morning by a committee of
Germans, assisted by the 5th and 11th Regiments N. Y. S. M., and reviewed by
the Mayor, in front of the City Hall.
NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE.
TUESDAY, JUNE 21, 1864.
RECEPTION OF THE DE KALB REGIMENT.—
The 41st Regiment, N. Y. S. V., familiarly known as the De Kalb Regiment, Col.
Von Gilsa commanding, just returned from active service, met with a hearty
welcome and reception yesterday afternoon at the hands of their numerous German
friends in this city. Alderman McMahon received the 41st as they passed in
front of the City Hall in a brief and appropriate speech, which was responded
to by Col. Von Gilsa on behalf of his command. He said he was willing to respond
at anytime to any legitimate call for the defense of his adopted country, and
he thought that the men he commanded
were likewise inclined.
A letter was received from Mayor Gunther, expressing his regret at not receiving
the regiment in person, as imperative duties prevented his waiting beyond the
specified time. The 41st then marched up Broadway escorted by the 5th N. Y.
S. N. G., Col. Berger commanding, and a large body of horsemen. At No. 701
Broadway they were presented with several handsome wreaths of laurel at the
hands of Madame Klein and Madame
Dietch. From thence they proceeded through Fourteenth street, down Third avenue
to the Bowery, stopping at No, 104, where a bountiful feast was awaiting them,
and which they did ample justice to.
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New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History
March 27, 2006