of the 86th
by: Maj. Samuel H. Leavitt
Taken from Final Report on
the Battlefield of Gettysburg (New York at Gettysburg) by the New York
Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg and Chattanooga. Albany,
NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1902.
The Eighty-sixth Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry, Col.
Benajah P. Bailey, commanding, was organized at Elmira, N. Y., November 23,
1861, and mustered into the United States service for three years. The different
companies of the regiment were recruited as follows:
Company A, in Syracuse; B, at Addison; C and F, at Corning;
D, at Hornellsville; E, at Elmira; G, at Canisteo; H, at Troupsburg; I, at Cooper's
Plains; and K, at Woodhull. Eight of these companies were from Steuben County.
We left Elmira for the seat of war, November 23, 1861, with 960 men, rank and
file, and arrived at Washington, D. C., on the morning of the 24th. We marched
immediately out to Bladensburg, where we went into camp; remained there but
a short time when we were ordered to Good Hope, Md., where we were stationed
until the following December. From Good Hope we moved to various places at which
we were encamped for short intervals, finally going to Washington, where we
remained on provost and guard duty until late in the month of August, 1862,
when we were ordered to the front.
Our first engagement was at Manassas where our casualties
were 13 killed, 67 wounded, and 38 missing. After the battle we fell back with
the army to Alexandria, Va., remaining in that vicinity for several weeks. Just
prior to the battle of Antietam the Eighty-sixth Regiment was at Fort Corcoran,
opposite Georgetown, D. C. Our division was hurried off through Washington to
Harper's Ferry, making a forced march from there through Pleasant Valley and
over South Mountain, but arrived only in time to witness Lee's army in full
retreat. We joined the Army of the Potomac in the pursuit.
At the battle of Fredericksburg, the Eighty-sixth was in
Whipple's Division, Third Corps, and was stationed in the city on the extreme
right of the line. While not seriously engaged in that contest we had a number
of men wounded. After the battle we crossed the river on pontoons near the Lacy
House and returned to our former quarters.
At the battle of Chancellorsville the regiment took part in three distinct
engagements. On the evening of May 1st, after dark, we took position in line
of battle in the grounds around the Chancellor House. We held this position
until the second, when our division was moved up the Plank Road for the purpose
of intercepting a Confederate wagon train, which was moving south on the old
Furnace Road. In the rough country beyond Hazel Grove we came in collision with
the enemy and after a severe engagement we were driven back to the Grove.
In the meantime General Jackson had struck the Eleventh Corps,
doubled them up and driven them back in disorder. Our division was cut off from
the main army by the Confederates, and the Eighty-sixth, with other regiments
composing the division, had to do some steady fighting to get in touch with
our army again. After three attempts we managed to cut our way through the enemy's
lines, sustaining severe losses. On coming into the line of battle again with
our own army on that Sunday morning, we were directed to support some pieces
of artillery stationed south of the Plank Road. The Confederates during the
course of that day made many desperate charges for the capture of these guns,
but were repulsed. In the afternoon, a more desperate effort than ever was made
on that portion of General Sickles' line, west of the Chancellor House, in which
attack Lieutenant Colonel Chapin, commanding the Eighty-sixth Regiment, was
killed, as were also Capts. D. E. Ellsworth and W. W. Angel; Major Higgins,
Adjutant Stafford, and Lieutenant Woodward were seriously wounded. The last-named
officer died a few days later. In this battle the regiment was under fire continuously
for three days, and lost heavily in killed and wounded.
In the forepart of June we were sent with three or four other regiments up
the Rappahannock River to Beverly Ford to support the cavalry, a portion of
which crossed the river near Brandy Station, on the 9th of June. Here we had
a hot encounter with the enemy, losing 6 men killed and a number wounded. We
joined the main army again at Bealton Station, and with diminished numbers took
up the line of march to Gettysburg, which proved to be a long and tiresome tramp.
About 1 o'clock p. m., on July 1, 1863, our division of the Third Corps halted
for dinner on the outskirts of Emmitsburg, Md., and about twelve miles from
Gettysburg. The fires had been barely kindled when the bugle sounded "pack
up." The booming of cannon could be heard in the distance, and we were
hurried off at double-quick. The hot July sun was blazing down on us, and many
fell by the wayside from the effects of the heat. We took position that night
on the battlefield of July 2d, near the historic "Wheatfield." Some
firing could be heard near the village of Gettysburg, and an occasional shell
exploded rather near us. Early in the morning of the 2d we marched to the south
and in rear of the rocky cavern known as the "Devil's Den." About
noon our brigade (Ward's) was advanced to its position in line of battle, our
regiment taking position in the woods beyond the Devil's Den, with the One hundred
and twenty-fourth New York on our immediate left, and the Twentieth Indiana
on our right. Between 3 and 4 o'clock p. m., the enemy, who had been pressing
the right of the Third Corps, which was now far advanced to the front, moved
forward in solid column, halting for a moment when they had reached the edge
of the woods in our front. They immediately advanced again, rapidly and with
fierce yells; but our ranks pouring out a deadly fire checked them, and they
were driven back. Rallying again they reformed and fired a sharp volley at us
which caused our line to waver some, but we hung on grimly and maintained our
ground until 5 p. m. The enemy had pressed the brigade back from the Devil's
Den, and had attacked Round Top. Those in our immediate front greatly outnumbered
us. Our left flank had been turned and we were forced to fall back, which we
did in good order. Our losses in this battle were 11 killed, 51 wounded, and
4 missing. Captain John Warner was among the killed, and Lieutenant Colonel
Higgins was seriously wounded.
During the afternoon of the 3d of July, our regiment supported General Hancock
and the Second Corps while sustaining the shock of Pickett's charge. No losses
were sustained by the Eighty-sixth on that day. The regiment was highly commended
by our respective division and brigade commanders, Generals Birney and Ward,
for its good conduct on the battlefield of Gettysburg.
On the 5th of July, we left the scene of that great battle to follow up General
Lee's retreating army. We crossed the Potomac River at Berlin, and marched up
through Loudoun Valley. Later on, and in the same month, we encountered Swell's
Corps at Manassas Gap, near its entrance, and drove him back into Shenandoah
Valley. This battle is known as Wapping Heights. We afterwards marched on to
Warrenton, Va., and were engaged with the enemy at Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Mine
Run, and Locust Grove. In the winter of 1864, at Brandy Station, the army was
reorganized and the Third Corps was consolidated into one division, making the
Third Division of the Second Corps. In January, 1864, most of the men in the
Eighty-sixth Regiment re-enlisted, and then went home on the customary veteran
furlough of thirty days, returning to the army in February, and then joining
the ranks of the Second Corps.
On the 3d of May, 1864, we broke camp at Brandy Station, crossed the Rapidan
River at Ely's Ford and entered upon the campaign of the Wilderness, our regiment
being made up of 450 men rank and file. On the night of May 4th, we bivouacked
on the old battlefield of Chancellorsville, and the next day pressed on to the
Wilderness. The survivors who participated in the trials and hardships of those
eventful days will remember the desperate fighting at the Brock Road and Po
River, in which our regiment had a fierce encounter with the enemy at close
quarters, hand-to-hand. We lost 32 men killed, and had a large number wounded.
In that engagement every member of our color guard was either killed or wounded,
and it was the good fortune of the writer to be able to carry the colors from
the field and to save them from capture by the Rebels. The regiment went into
the engagement with 300 men, of which number 150 were numbered among the killed,
wounded, or missing after the battle. Capt. John Phinney and Adjt. James Cherry
were among the killed; and Capt. Samuel Stone was killed the same day at Alsop's
Farm, where Capt. Vincent was severely wounded.
At the battle of Spotsylvania, on May 12th, the Eighty-sixth with the Third
Division of the Second Corps formed the first line in the attack upon the enemy's
works, which were captured together with 16 pieces of artillery which were turned
against their former owners. There was good hard fighting that day, and a Confederate
division numbering 4,000 men were taken prisoners. On the morning of the 13th
our regiment could muster only 75 men. As we had opened the campaign with 450
in active service it will be easily comprehended what rough treatment we received
in that ten days of battle. From Spotsylvania we went to Anderson's Farm, North
Anna, Totopotomoy, and Cold Harbor. We crossed the James River at Wilcox Landing,
and arrived at Petersburg June 15th. We took part in the battles of the next
On the morning of June 16th, we took possession of the enemy's abandoned works.
On the morning of the 16th, a shell from a Rebel battery passed through the
regiment, and exploding killed Lieutenant Stanton, and wounded several others.
We remained in the vicinity for some time, constantly changing oar position
but all the while under fire, and losing many of our men killed and wounded.
On the 27th of July, with the Second Corps, we marched to City Point, crossed
the Appomattox at Point of Rocks, and at Deep Bottom crossed the James River.
We encountered the enemy, and at night recrossed the river and fell back to
the Petersburg front. And here followed the battle of Reams' Station. After
another engagement at Deep Bottom in the month of August we relieved the Ninth
Corps at City Point, the latter corps going into the fight at the explosion
of the Mine.
On October 27th the regiment bore its part in the battle of Hatcher's Run,
where it sustained a heavy loss in killed and wounded. In this action we were
completely surrounded by the Rebels. Night came on, and a heavy rain set in;
both armies were mixed up. About 1 o'clock in the morning we managed to extricate
ourselves, and made our escape with the loss of a few men who were made prisoners
by the enemy. Lieutenant Rathbone was among the missing when we made camp again,
and he was never heard of afterwards.
We were then marched to the works at Petersburg where we relieved a brigade
in Fort Hell. We remained there, living under ground and protected by our bomb
proof defences, until December. There was a constant shower of projectiles,
big and little, from the Rebel works falling about us during these months. Col.
M. B. Stafford, a brave and popular officer, was mortally wounded by the bursting
of a shell, and died in the fort, December 1, 1864.
About that time the Eighty-sixth, being relieved from duty at Fort Hell, joined
the Fifth Corps, which with the Third Division, Second Corps, took part in the
Weldon Raid, going as far south as Weldon, N. C, or near there.
The men suffered intensely on this march from a cold storm of rain which turned
to sleet and snow. On February 5 and 7, 1865, occurred the second battle of
Hatcher's Run, in which the Eighty-sixth took part. In this position we were
at the breaking through of the lines at Petersburg. We crossed through the lines
just south of the Boydton Plank Road, marched through the woods in our front,
but found that the enemy a short time previous had abandoned their works and
were in full retreat. Imagine our joy on beholding our own cavalry passing down
inside the enemy's works. We marched through to the left and upon the Boydton
Plank Road to the outskirts of Petersburg.
In the morning we turned our backs to the city without having had the satisfaction
of entering it. We marched after the retiring army, picking up stragglers and
reviewing with satisfaction other unmistakable signs of " the beginning
of the end."
The wake of Lee's fleeing columns was strewn with burning wagon trains, camp
and garrison equipage, dead and dying horses, and maimed and broken-down soldiers
in ragged uniforms of gray. So we marched on, frequently coming upon and skirmishing
with the trailing Confederate brigades.
On the 28th, after several attempts to take a piece of artillery which had
annoyed us throughout the day, the regiment made a final charge and captured
it. Two men of Company C of our regiment pushed through a swamp of alders, within
twenty feet of the gun, when the last shot was fired; the enemy abandoned it,
and the men took the piece before the smoke had cleared away.
On the next day, April 9th, General Lee surrendered. The excitement was intense,
and the enthusiasm unbounded. Men who an hour before had been unable to stand
from fatigue, capered about and cut "pigeon wings " with frantic glee.
Bands played, flags waved, hats filled the air, the host of artillery and infantry
joined in one grand, wild symphony of cannon and musketry that made those in
the rear who had not yet heard the good news, think that the greatest battle
of the war had commenced.
On the 11th of June we marched back to Burkesville Junction, and after a few
weeks of rest made our way with the army to Washington. We marched through Richmond,
passing Libby Prison, at that time full of Confederate soldiers; the city was
also filled with paroled Confederate prisoners. We arrived about the middle
of May at our last camp, at Bailey's Cross Roads, near Washington. We then took
part in the greatest military pageant that this continent has yet seen, the
Grand Review at Washington. On the 27th of June, 1865, the Eighty-sixth New
York Regiment was duly mustered out the service of the United States, after
three years and eight months of active duty with the Army of the Potomac.
The total number of men who had been enrolled in the regiment was 1,318. The
losses in battle were: killed, 13 officers and 159 men; total, 172. Number wounded,
611. On the 29th of June we broke camp, marched through the city of Washington,
and boarded trains bound for our Northern homes.
At Elmira, July 2, 1865, we turned over our arms and accoutrements to Uncle
Sam at Barracks No. 1; received our last pay as soldiers, and were finally mustered
out. We bade adieu to the stirring life of camp and field to return once more
to the peaceful monotony of rural life.
We bade farewell to comrades as brave as any that wore the blue, and as chivalrous
as any knight that ever wore plate of Milan steel.
The following is a list of the battles in which the Eighty-sixth Regiment
Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Beverly Ford, Gettysburg,
Wapping Heights, Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Locust Grove, Mine Run, Wilderness, Po
River, Spotsylvania, Anderson's Farm, North Anna, Totopotomoy, Cold Harbor,
Siege of Petersburg, Jones's House, Deep Bottom, First Hatcher's Run, Second
Hatcher's Run, Five Forks, Amelia Springs, Farmville, Surrender of Lee's Army,
and many skirmishes not included.
Back to 86th
Regiment During the Civil War
New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History
March 28, 2006